6 August 2016

Resources

More Information

If you have done any genealogical work on the internet, you probably have already assembled your own impressive collection of favorite links. There is no point in trying to re-invent the wheel here, but I can't help but throw in my own 2 cents worth.

I have benefited from a great many resources in learning about our family and the times in which it has lived. I can't begin to acknowledge everything I have made use of, but perhaps you will find this list helpful as a starting place for your own research.

Don't overlook the Selected Bibliography, listed last, but definitely not least.

General Genealogy

Ancestry.com

English

Ancestry.de

German

This is a subscription-based repository of a wide range of genealogical material. A Library Edition, with free access to most, but not all, of the same information in the commercial edition, is often available for patrons at public and academic libraries.

One should exercise caution with the compiled databases gleaned from unidentified sources. The textual indexing of some resources is not always as accurate as it might be. Ancestry is at its best when it serves up digital images of documents, allowing you to examine the primary sources yourself. You need to be creative and persistent in your searches; and do not expect to find success in the first two pages of results.

Centro de Apoio a Pesquisas e Encontros Familiares (Brasil) - CAPEF

Portuguese

The Center of Support to Researches and Family Encounters is located in Teutônia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. The web site is largely in Portuguese, but there are some pages in English.

CAPEF has brief genealogical information and a photo about the family of Ernesto Frederico Guilherme and Sophia (Berlemann) Fiegenbaum, who emigrated from Germany to Brazil in 1869.

Cyndi's List of Genealogical Sites

English

A comprehensive, categorized & cross-referenced list of links that point you to genealogical research sites online.

FamilySearch

English

This site is a service provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (commonly known as the Mormons), who have long had an interest in genealogy. Some of the data here should be used with caution. Source citations are often missing and some of the information has been submitted by researchers who might not have worked to the high standards you uphold. Databases which provide indexed information often make assumptions about dates and locations, which you will discover if you are able to view a digital image of the source document.

FamilySearch is a partner of Ancestry.com

Foundation for East European Family History Studies - FEEFHS

English

Founded in 1992 as the Federation of East European Family History Societies, in 2014 the organization changed its name to the Foundation for East European Family History Studies.

Genealogy.com

English

This web site is part of the Ancestry.com community. As of September 2014, it greatly curtailed its services. A lot of content was withdrawn. What remains cannot be revised; only deleted.

GenForum message boards, Family Tree Maker homepages, and the most popular articles remain available in a read-only format on Genealogy.com, meaning the pages are preserved to allow you to view, but not edit information.

Heimatbund für das Oldenburger Münsterland - CATCH_PHRASE

German

HIS-Data - CATCH_PHRASE

German

"Aktuelle und historische westeuropäische Territorien mit ihren Verwaltungsgliederungen."

Historical geo-political information about places in Germany compiled by Hans-Walter Pries.

Internetportal "Westfälische Geschichte" - CATCH_PHRASE

German

Missouri Genealogy Trails - CATCH_PHRASE

English

National Genealogical Society - CATCH_PHRASE

English

Naturwissenschaftlicher und Historischer Verein für das Land Lippe e.V.

German

Genealogical research in Lippe.

RootsWeb.com - CATCH_PHRASE

English

This resource used to advertise itself as the oldest and largest site devoted to the free distribution of genealogical information. It is now part of the Ancestry.com community and some resources have been absorbed by that organization.

U.S. Biographies Project

English

USGenWeb Project

English

This organization is run by volunteers "working to provide free genealogy websites for genealogical research in every county and every state of the United States. This Project is non-commercial and fully committed to free genealogy access for everyone." At this site you will find general information and links to all of the state and county web sites connected with the USGenWeb Project.

Verein für Computergenealogie e.V.

German (& some English)

With more than 3,600 members (as of January 2016), the CompGen-Verein is the largest genealogical association in Germany. It's goal is to promote science and research in genealogical and family-related studies. To this end, the association operates several computer servers and makes available a wide range of material.

With such a quantity of information, you will need to be persistent in your navigation through the web site and then in your evaluation of the results. Links to off-site sources may be outdated.

German is the main language of operation, but a fair bit of material (at least column headers and labels) is also available in English. Sometimes the English version is not a complete translation of the German. The use of German abbreviations is common and can be a stumbling block for those whose fluency is limited.

WorldGenWeb Project

English

"The WorldGenWeb Project is a non-profit, volunteer based organization dedicated to providing genealogical and historical records and resources for world-wide access!"

Specific Genealogy

Auglaize County, Ohio, USA - Marriage / Birth / Death Records

English

TEXT

Bellemont Cemetery - Wathena, Kansas, USA

English

This is part of the Cousin Collector - Cemetery Project to document burials at Bellemont Cemetery at Wathena, Doniphan County, Kansas.

Immanuels United Church of Christ - Holstein, Warren County, Missouri

English

Jane (Lichte) Denny's web site with photos of Immanuels United Church of Christ (founded in 1839 as the German Lutheran Church on Charrette); the three church cemeteries; and selected gravestones.

St. John's Church - Cappeln, Missouri, USA

Englsih

A brief history of the church at Cappeln, St. Charles County, Missouri.

St. Paul's Cemetery Association - Bay, Missouri, USA

English

A project to make available online the cemetery records and photos of the gravestones at historic St. Paul's Church at Bay, Gasconade County, Missouri.

Migration

Amerikanetz: Network for Westphalian Emigration to America since the 19th Century

German

The introductory page here is in English; the rest of the site is in German.

Auswanderung Lippe-USA - CATCH_PHRASE

German (some English)

A database and reports on emigration from Lippe (often called Lippe-Detmold) based on the research of the Naturwissenschaftlicher und Historischer Verein für das Land Lippe e.V. Upper level pages are in German and English; data is in German only.

Emslanders to the American Mid-West - CATCH_PHRASE

English

This well-organized site concentrates on Emsland, a portion of Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony). It also has good general information on emigration from Germany.

Emigrants from Kreis Meschede and Kreis Olpe (Westfalen) to the USA - CATCH_PHRASE

German

Information about emigration during later in the 19th century, including some letters.

Emigration from Oldenburg, 1830-1880 - CATCH_PHRASE

German  &  English

An article available in both German and English: Ostendorf, Johannes. "A History of Emigration from old Amt Damme (Oldenburg), in Particular to North America, in the Years 1830-1880," Oldenburger Jahrbuch des Landesvereins für Geschichte und Heimatkunde, 46/47 (1942-1943), pages 164-297.

German Migration to Brazil - CATCH_PHRASE

German ???

TEXT

Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild - (ITSG)

English

Immigration Diary of Friedrich Nohl, 1849

LANGUAGE

The Immigration Diary of Michael Friedrich Radke, 1848

LANGUAGE

Michael Friedrich Radke's memoir of the conditions of his life near Berlin, his desire for more favorable circumstances for himself and his family, their sea voyage from Bremen to Baltimore and the struggle to find a fruitful home in the USA is a compelling, but too-short document.

TheShipsList: Passengers, Ships, Shipwrecks - CATCH_PHRASE

English

This site is a little dis-organized, but among all those random links is some very helpful information (some of it off-site). Don't give up too soon.

Genealogical and Historical Societies

California, USA

LANGUAGE

Illinois, USA

LANGUAGE

Iowa, USA

LANGUAGE

Kansas, USA

LANGUAGE

Minnesota, USA

LANGUAGE

Missouri, USA

LANGUAGE

Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Germany

German

Ohio, USA

English

Westfalen (Westphalia), Germany

German

Process Divider

Libraries, Archives, and Databases

Bureau of Land Management / General Land Office Records
"We provide live access to Federal land conveyance records for the Public Land States.... This site offers researchers a source of information on the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals."
Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (CWSS)
The National Park Service is in the process of assembling electronic databases of records of veterans of the Civil War. It includes records for Civil War Prisons.
Historical United States Census Data Browser
With this interactive database at the University of Virgina Library, you can analyze national census data from 1790 to 1970, by state, county, race, age, sex and occupation. If you want to know how many free white males aged 30-39 living in Warren County, Missouri where engaged in agriculture in 1840, this is the place to find the answer (1,192 individuals in a county-wide population of 4,253 were engaged in agriculture; 215 were free white males 30-39 and 188 were free white females of the same age).
Illinois State Archives
The State of Illinois is doing a great job putting the resources of the state archives online - births, marriages, deaths, military records, land sales, etc. You will find this site easy to navigate and searching is very straight-forward, with clear instructions close at hand. Material is being added on a regular basis; check back from time to time.
Illinois State Library
Midwest Genealogy Center at 3440 S. Lee's Summit Road, Independence, Missouri., part of the Mid-Continent Public Library (MCPL) system.
Part of the Mid-Continent Public Library (MCPL) system, this facility is devoted to local and state history and genealogy. Among other resources at your disposal are the National Archives' microfilm series on the federal census for Missouri, Civil War military records, and immigration and ships passenger lists indices. The web site will give you access to catalogues of the library's holdings, some of which are available through inter-library loan. There is a nice list of links of interest to genealogists and historians. The library and the web site are well worth a visit.
Missouri State Archives
You should definitely check out the Online Resources and Databases available at the Missouri State Archives web site. The Office of the Secretary of State for Missouri is making an effort to place sections of the State Archives online. You will find a wealth of information here. Many of these projects are on-going; you should check back regularly to monitor the progress. Some things to try:
Missouri State Library
NARA - U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
This agency is the nation's attic, basement and back closet when it comes to saving paperwork. Be sure to check out the section on Genealogy. The agency's holdings are not on-line at this site, but you will find helpful articles about what is available elsewhere and advice about how to focus your research.
National Personnel Records Center (NPRC)
The National Archives and Records Administration maintains two personnel records centers, both located in St. Louis, Missouri. The Military Personnel Records (MPR) facility houses the service and medical records for discharged and deceased military personnel who served in the 20th century. Records for federal civilian employees (1900-present) are maintained at the Civilian Record Facility. To obtain military records for service before World War I, contact the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC.
Social Security Death Index at: RootsWeb. Genealogy.com.
Each web site handles the search differently. Be sure to read the explanations about which Social Security numbers are included and which are not included in the database.
St. Charles City-County Library District - Local History and Genealogy
Serving St. Charles County, Missouri. You'll find a useful list of links here. Be sure to visit the Digital Image Gallery
University of Missouri Digital Library
Western Historical Manuscript Collection
A collection of primary source material at the University of Missouri.
Western States Marriage Record Index
This is an online database created and maintained by the McKay Library, Family History Center at BYU-Idaho
Wisconsin Local History and Biography Articles Collection
Oldenburgische Gesellschaft für Familienkunde e.V.
Ohio
Westfalen (Westphalia) Germany
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Maps and Photos

American Memory
A project of the U. S. Library of Congress, this is a gateway to a public digital collection of primary source material from the nation's history.
Center for Applied Research and Environmental Systems (CARES)
This site at the University of Missouri, Columbia is an excellent source for GIS data and interactive maps of the state of Missouri. Configure a map to fit your needs and download it.
Baden-Württemberg GenWeb
There are two pages indexing the maps on this site. Page One shows thumbnail images of a number of historical maps for the German speaking areas of Europe, from Roman times to after WW II. Page Two gives a number of thumbnail images of the Duchy of Baden, the Kingdom of Württemberg, and of Central Europe (from 1648-1866). Clicking on a thumbnail image will open a large, high-quality image of each map (download times may be rather long, depending on the quality of your connection).
Geodatenatlas Kreis Steinfurt
An interactive map of contemporary Kries Steinfurt based on GIS data. Ladbergen is located in this administrative district of Bundesland Nordrhein-Westfalen, BRD.
Geographic Names Information System
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Geological Survey. Search for place names and geographic features. I have found the search engine a little suspect; it is not aware of two mountains I can see from my home. Also, I believe that the database does not include information on historical features. There are links to maps.
GOV - the Genealogical Gazeteer
A database of geographical place-names for genealogical research in Germany; a project from the Verein für Computergenealogie. In English and German. Try the ExpertView to see a place's geopolitical setting through history.
Historical Atlas - Germany
Thomas Höckmann provides maps, essays and historical data on the geopolitical development of Germany.
IEG-MAPS
A digital, historical atlas of Europe offered free for personal use by the Institute of European History, Mainz.
Library of Congress - American Memory - Map Collections
An effort by the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress to make a portion of its more than 4.5 million items available to the public in digital form.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency GEOnet Names Server (GNS)
"The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's (NGA) and the U.S. Board on Geographic Names' (US BGN) database of foreign geographic feature names." Here, the term "foreign" means "non-USA" geographical place names. The database is updated monthly.
National Atlas of Canada
Search, view and download maps of Canada.
Perry-Castañeda Historical Map Collection
A large collection of online maps at the University of Texas.
Tiger Mapping Service
Notice on this web site as of 26 June 2011:
    "As of late May 2010, the TIGER Map Service will no longer be available. This application used geography from the 1990 Census. The Census Bureau determined that it was time to retire the service."
    "We are working on new web mapping services which we hope to release in conjuction with the 2010 Census data in early 2011. We are sorry for any inconvenience this change may cause."
    Vistors are directed to the site's home page for additional information.
U. S. Gazetteer - U. S. Census Bureau
Philippi, Friedrich. Geschichte Westfalens. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, 1926.
A digital copy of this book available from the library of the Universität Bielefeld contains two maps which show territories in the region of Westphalia during 1801 (page 196), and 1812 (page 197) when the area was occupied by the 1st French Empire.

Software

RootsMagic Genealogy Software
RootsMagic icon
This is a replacement program for the earlier Family Origins software. I am very pleased with its features and have found it indispensable over the years in helping me keep track of the family history. It is the primary digital tool I use to marshal my genealogical data. I recommend this product highly.
The Next Generation of Genealogy Sitebuilding (TNG)
TNG is a powerful way to manage and display your genealogy data online. All information is stored in MySQL database tables and is dynamically displayed with PHP. Installation and maintenance are within the skill level of most intermediate computer users. I use this software for only the database section of this web site, but you can certainly use it for your entire web site. There are a variety of templates available. It may also be installed in a wiki or a CMS such as WordPress. Check out the TNG web site for a through explanation of all features and to test a working demonstration.

Miscellaneous

Citing Your Sources
Documenting your genealogical work properly is essential. This article will help you get a handle on this matter:
Family Relationships
Have you ever wondered whether that pesky "2nd cousin, twice removed" is a close enough relative that you have to be nice to him at the next family reunion? These resources might help you figure out who should be in the family and who is definitely out.
Handwriting and Printed German Script
Speak like a native
Plautdietsch - Mennonite Low German Dictionary
  • This is an on-line, interactive version of Herman Rempel's Kjenn Jie Noch Plautdietsch (1984).

Family Genealogies

Block Home Page
John L. Block has collected much information on the Block family. He has an extensive genealogical database of German emigrants from Hannover and Westphalia to Gasconade and Warren Counties, Missouri.
Familie Broekroelofs
The Broekroelofs family, of the Netherlands (from Radewijk in the municipality of Hardenberg in the province of Overijssel), are related to the Fiegenbaums through the Weitkamp family. This web site (in Dutch) develops the Fiegenbaum-Weitkamp-Broekroelofs genealogy (Stamboom Fiegenbaum) and presents an album of photos from Ladbergen in August 2008 (click on the image to go to a Picasa web album).
Carol Lee (Winter) Comp's Web Site
Carol shares her research on the Winter family and related surnames, of which Fiegenbaum is one.
Fiegenbaum Family Genealogy
Our genealogical database at the WorldConnect Project at RootsWeb.com.
The Freese Family
The descendants of Johan B. J. and Cath. Elizabeth (Kühlmann) Freese.
Miller-Buddemeyer Family Tree
Genealogical research from Chandra A. (Miller) Hoffman.
Klöpfer, Kloepfer, and Kleopfer Genealogy
Research from Robert Douglas Kleopfer, the great-great-grandson of Jacob Kleopfer (1824-1896), who immigrated from Bavaria to the USA in 1842.
Kluckhohn Family in America
"The earliest Kluckhohns (1650 or so) are recorded at the parishes of Lemgo and of Talle, in the Prinicipality of Lippe-Detmold, about 40 km (25 mi) Southwest of Hannover. Between 1848 and 1856 many Kluckhohns and their kin removed from Bavenhausen to Chicago, IL. From there they spread to Cedar Lake, IN, Stitzer, WI, Hancock and Plymouth Counties in Iowa. By 1997 we can be found as far away as Australia and Antarctica." Presented by Robert H Kluckhohn.
Born In Bavenhausen: Kluckhohns Worldwide
Another presentation by Robert H Kluckhohn.
Friedrich Ludwig Meier from Hannover Germany (Niedersachen): Indiana to Kansas
Dwayne Meyer has posted his research on the Meier (or Meyer) family at the RootsWeb WorldConnect Project. From the opening page, search for a name (Fiegenbaum might be one place to start).
Patty Onek's Family Genealogy Site
This site (formerly at <www.osprey.net/~kspatty/> ) has disappeared from the internet. If you know where it now lives, please drop me a line. Older versions have been captured by the Way Back Machine at Internet Archives <http://wayback.archive.org/web/*/http://www.osprey.net/~kspatty/>.
Keeper of the Family
This web site by Susan "Suzi" Marie (Dewsnap) Terrell has photos and personal remembrances of some members of the Sexauer and McDougal families, who are related to the Fiegenbaums through Wilhelmine Christine Elizabeth Fiegenbaum (1853-1943), eldest child of Rev. Friedrich Wilhelm and Louisa (Otto) Fiegenbaum.
Theodor Tempel Family
A site created by John A. Lefman devoted to the family of Theodor Tempel (1879-1959) and Emma Starkebaum (1880-1902).
Note the new URL as of 25 March 2009.
Fritz Lefmann
Another site by John A. Lefman with research on the family of Friedrich "Fritz" Wilhelm Lefmann (1838-1909) and Maria Justina Louisa Kampe (1846-1920).
Wietholter Family -- Ladbergen - New Knoxville
Stan Wietholter, of New Knoxville, Ohio, has traced his Wietholter family history back to his 6th great-grandparents, Jacob Heinrich Wietholter (b.1697) and Christina Kattmann (b.1705), of Ladbergen, Westphalia, Germany.

Digital Collections

Google Book Search
By filtering your search for "Full view only" you can concentrate on complete texts. These titles are generally in the public domain and a PDF file is available for downloading.
Family History Archive
Complete genealogical and historical texts that are part of the digital collections available online through the Harold B. Lee Library at Brigham Young University.
Historic Missouri Newspaper Project
Illinois Digital Archives
A wide variety of digital resources from the Illinois State Library. This is part of the much larger Digital Illinois web presence, a consortium of libraries in Illinois with digital collections from libraries, historical societies, museums, and other cultural institutions in the state.
IllinoisHarvest
This is an ongoing process to digitize selected books from the print collection of over 11 million volumes at The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The University is a participant in the Open Content Alliance (OCA), a program of the Internet Archive, and many of these title are also available at that web site.
Making of America (MOA)
Started in 1995 by the University of Michigan and Cornell University, the Making of America is a "digital library of primary sources in American social history primarily from the antebellum period through reconstruction."
Missouriana Digital Text Collection
A collection of digital texts in the University of Missouri Libraries Digital Library. The entire collection is very broad in scope, covering the state's history, geology, literature, agriculture and the Civil War in Missouri.
The Text Archive
This section of The Internet Archive web site is an open-access collection of complete digital texts from libraries, museums, educational and research institutions and individual volunteers.

Selected Bibliography

Aaslestad, Katherine. "Paying for War: Experiences of Napoleonic Rule in the Hanseatic Cities." Central European History, volume 39, number 4 (December 2006), pages 641-675.

Aaslestad, Katherine, and Karen Hagemann. "1806 and Its Aftermath: Revisiting the Period of the Napoleonic Wars in German Central European Historiography." Central European History, volume 39, number 4 (December 2006), pages 547-579.

Aengenvoort, Anne. Migration, Siedlungsbildung, Akkulturation: die Auswanderung Nordwestdeutscher nach Ohio, 1830-1914. Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte; Beihefte Nr. 150. Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1999.

Aley, Ginette. "Knotted Together Like Roots in the Darkness: Rural Midwestern Women and Region - A Bibliographic Guide." Agricultural History, volume 77, number 3 (2003), pages 453-481.

Alumnal Association of Iowa Wesleyan College. Historical Sketch and Alumni Record of Iowa Wesleyan College . Mount Pleasant, Iowa: Alumnal Association of Iowa Wesleyan College, 1917.

American Ancestry: Giving Name and Descent, in the Male Line, of Americans Whose Ancestors Settled in the United States Previous to the Declaration of Independence, A.D. 1776. Volume 11: Embracing Lineages from the Whole of the United States, 1898. Albany, New York: Joe Munsell's Sons, 1898.

Ander, O. Fritiof. "The Immigrant Church and the Patrons of Husbandry." Agricultural History, volume 8, number 4 (October, 1934), pages 155-168.

Anderson, Joseph Ferguson. Methodist Dictionary: a Brief Work On Methodist Terminology: Prepared in the Interest Of Ministers, Members, and Friends of the Methodist Episcopal Church. New York: Eaton and Mains, 1909.

Anderson, Robin L. "A Government-Directed Frontier in the Humid Tropics: Pará, Brazil, 1870-1920." Agricultural History, volume 55, number 4 (October 1981), pages 392-406.

Anderson, Timothy Gene. Immigrants in the World-system: Domestic Industry and Industrialization in Northwest Germany and the Migration to Osage County, Missouri, 1835-1900. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Texas A & M University, 1994. Reproduction (photocopy); Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1996.

Anderson, Timothy G. "On the Pre-Migration Social and Economic Experience of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Yearbook of German-American Studies, 36 (2001), pages 91-108.

Anderson, Timothy Gene. "Proto-Industrialization, Sharecropping, and Outmigration in Nineteenth-Century Rural Westphalia." Journal of Peasant Studies, volume 29, number 1 (October 2001), pages 1-30.

Andrews, Christopher Columbus. Brazil, Its Conditions and Prospects. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887.

Andrews, Lorenzo F. Pioneers of Polk County, Iowa And Reminiscences of Early Days. 2 volumes. Des Moines, Iowa: Baker-Trisler Company, 1908.

Annals of Brown County, Kansas: From the Earliest Records to January 1, 1900. Compiled and published by Grant W. Harrington, editor and publisher Kansas Democrat. Hiawatha, Kansas: Harrington Printing Company, 1903.

Atack, Jeremy. "Tenants and Yeomen in the Nineteenth Century." Agricultural History, volume 62, number 3, Quantitative Studies in Agrarian History (Summer, 1988), pages 6-32.

Atack, Jeremy, Erik F. Haites, James Mak, and Gary M. Walton. "The Profitability of Steamboating on Western Rivers: 1850." Business History Review, volume 49, number 3 (Autumn, 1975), pages 346-354.

Atlas and History of Auglaize County with Biographical Sketches. Compiled and drawn by J. H. Meyer, architect and engineer. Wapakoneta, Ohio: [publisher not identified], 1917.

Atlas of Auglaize County Ohio From Records & Original Surveys Drawn & Compiled by H. G. Howland, C. E. Illustrations by H. G. Howland & A. Keller. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Robert Sutton, 1880.

  • "The reproduction of this book has been made possible through the sponsorship of Auglaize County Historical Society, St. Marys, Ohio." Reproduction in 1975 by Unigraphic, Inc. (1401 North Fares Avenue, Evansville, Indiana 47711).

Atlas of Lafayette County, Missouri 1914. Tuttle & Pike, civil engineers. Higginsville, Missouri: George Scott, 1914.

Atlas of Lafayette County, Missouri. Rockford, Illinois: W. W. Hixson & Company, [1920?].

Bahlmann, Paul. Der Regierungsbezirk Münster: seine Zusammensetzung, Eintheilung und Bevölkerung. Münster: Druck und Verlag der Aschendorffschen Buchhandlung, 1893.

Baines, Dudley. "European Emigration, 1815-1930: Looking at the Emigration Decision Again." Economic History Review, New Series, volume 47, number 3 (August 1994), pages 525-544.

Baker, Joseph Eugene, editor. Past and Present of Alameda County, California. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1914.

Baltzer, Friedrich. Alma Mater; Story of College Life Written in Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Elmhurst College at Elmhurst, Illinois. St. Louis, Missouri: Eden Publishing House, 1921.

Barz, Raymond, and Allen Barz, editors. Our Barz Heritage. [Iowa Falls, Iowa]: Raymond and Allen Barz, 1970.

Bateman, Newton, and Paul Selby, editors. Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois; and, History of Christian County, edited by Henry L. Fowkes. 2 volumes. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company, 1918.

Bates, Alan L. The Western Rivers Steamboat Cyclopoedium, or American Riverboat Structure & Detail, Salted with Lore with a Nod to the Modelmaker. Leonia, New Jersey: Hustle Press, 1968.

Bates, William Henry. Souvenir of Early and Notable Events in the History of the North West Territory, Illinois, and Tazewell County, Including the Names of Those Who Have Served the County in Various Official Capacities. Pekin, Illinois: W. H. Bates, 1916.

Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Kreises Tecklenburg: Im Auftrage des Provinzial-Verbandes der Provinz Westfalen. Bearbeitet von A. Ludorff, mit geschichtlichen Einleitungen von Dr. A. Brennecke. Münster i. W.: Kommissions-Verlag von Ferdinand Schöningh, 1907.

  • Band 21: Kreis Tecklenburg.

Baxter, Angus. In Search of Your German Roots: a Complete Guide to Tracing Your Ancestors in the Germanic Areas of Europe. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1994.

Beckerath, Hilde von. Das niederdeutsche Dorf. Hansische Welt no. 3. Braunschweig; Hamburg: Verlag Georg Westermann, 1921.

Beggs, Stephen R. Pages from the Early History of the West and North-west: Embracing Reminiscences and Incidents of Settlement and Growth, and Sketches of the Material and Religious Progress of the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, with Especial Reference to the History of Methodism. Cincinnati, Ohio: Printed at the Methodist Book Concern, R. P. Thompson, printer, 1868.

Bek, William G. "Followers of Duden." Missouri Historical Review, volume 14, number 1 (October 1919) - volume 19, number 2 (January 1925).

  • Note: This is a not very tightly organized series of 18 articles united by the common theme of being about early German immigrants to eastern Missouri. Some articles are numbered; some are not. Some articles have sub-titles; some do not.

All of the issues of the Missouri Historical Review associated with William G. Bek's series are freely available online at the State Historical Society of Missouri.

Bek, William G. The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its colony, Hermann, Missouri. Americana Germanica, new series, 5. Philadelphia: Americana Germanica Press, 1907.

  • In 1984, reprint editions were published by the American Press (Boston, Massachusetts); and, Historic Hermann, Inc. (Hermann, Missouri).

Bek, William G. "Hermann Garlichs - Theologian." Followers of Duden: Thirteenth Article. Missouri Historical Review, volume 18, number 1 (October 1923), pages 36-54.

Bek, William G. "Survivals of Old Marriage-Customs Among the Low Germans of West Missouri." Journal of American Folklore, volume 21, number 80 (January-March 1908), pages 60-67.

The Bench and Bar of Illinois; Historical and Reminiscent.. Edited by John M. Palmer. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: Lewis Publishing Company, 1899.

Bergerson, Andrew Stuart. Ordinary Germans in Extraordinary Times: the Nazis Revolution in Hildesheim. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Berkner, Lutz K. "Inheritance, Land Tenure and Peasant Family Structure: a German Regional Comparison." In Jack Goody, Joan Thirsk, and E. P. Thompson, editors, Family and Inheritance: Rural Society in Western Europe, 1200-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).

Betts, Philip J. F. "Marriage Alliances, Household Composition and the Role of Kinship in Nineteenth-Century Farming." Local Population Studies, volume 66 (Spring 2001), pages 34-52.

Billigmeier, Robert Henry. Americans from Germany: a Study in Cultural Diversity. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1974.

A Biographical and Genealogical History of Southeastern Nebraska. 2 volumes. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1904.

Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Adams, Clay, Hall and Hamilton Counties, Nebraska, Comprising a Condensed History of the State, a Number of Biographies of Distinguished Citizens of the Same, a Brief Descriptive History of Each of the Counties Mentioned, and Numerous Biographical Sketches of the Citizens of such Counties.... Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Company, 1890.

Biographical History Of Crawford, Ida And Sac Counties, Iowa: Containing Portraits Of All the Presidents of the United States, With Accompanying Biographies, a Condensed History of Iowa, With Portraits and Biographies of the Governors of the State, Engravings of Prominent Citizens of the Counties, Wth [sic] Personal Histories of Many of the Early Settlers and Leading Families. Chicago, Illinois: Lewis Publishing Company, 1893.

Biographical Review of Henry County, Iowa: Containing Biographical and Genealogical Sketches of Many of the Prominent Citizens of To-day and Also of the Past. Chicago, Illinois: Hobart Publishing Company, 1906.

Blanning, T. C. W. "The French Revolution and the Modernization of Germany." Central European History, volume 22, number 2 (June 1989), pages 109-129.

Blanning, T. C. W. The French Revolution in Germany: Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1983.

Bode, Henry. Builders of our Foundation. Webster Groves, Missouri: privately printed, 1940.

Bogue, Allan. From Prairie to Corn Belt: Farming on the Illinois and Iowa Frontier in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1963.

The Book of Minnesotans: a Biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men of the State of Minnesota. Edited by Albert Nelson Marquis. Chicago, Illinois: A. N. Marquis & Company, 1907.

Boone-Duden Historical Society. 1993 Cemetery Update for Femme Osage Township in St. Charles County, MO. New Melle, Missouri: Boone-Duden Historical Society, 1995.

Boone-Duden Historical Society. 45 Warren County, Missouri Cemeteries. Volume 1. New Melle, Missouri: Boone-Duden Historical Society, 1995.

Bosse, George von. Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten Unter Besonderer Berücksichtigung Seines Politischen, Ethischen, Sozialen Und Erzieherischen Einflusses. Stuttgart: Chr. Belsersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1908.

Brady, Dorothy S. "Relative Prices in the Nineteenth Century." Journal of Economic History, volume 24, number 2 (June, 1964), pages 145-203.

Brandt, Edward R., et al. Germanic Genealogy: A Guide to Worldwide Sources and Migration Patterns. St. Paul, Minnesota: Germanic Genealogy Society, 1995.

Breihan, B. C., A. A. Leifeste, C. F. Schüssler, Wm. Mahowski, and Wilhelm Buehrer. Kurze Geschichte der Südlich-Deutschen Konferenz zum 50jährigen Jubiläum, 1872-1922. Jubiläums-Ausgabe der Südlich Deutschen Konferenz in Texas und Louisiana. [place of publication not identified]: [publisher not identified], 1922.

Bremer, Bertha G., James M. Kirk, Joe E. Gunnerson. Centennial History of Hamilton County. Aurora, Nebraska: Hamilton County Centennial Association, 1967.

Breuilly, John. The Formation of the First German Nation-State 1800-1871. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1966.

Breuilly, John. "Napoleonic Germany and State-formation," in Collaboration and Resistance in Napoleonic Europe: State-formation in an Age of Upheaval, c. 1800-1815, edited by Michael Rowe (Basingstoke, England; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pages 121-152.

Brinkman, Carl. "The Place of Germany in the Economic History of the Nineteenth Century." The Economic History Review, volume 4, number 2 (April 1933), pages 129-146.

Brown County Genealogical Society. Mount Hope Cemetery. Hiawatha, Kansas: Brown County Genealogical Society, 2003.

Brownstone, David M., and Irene M. Franck. Facts About American Immigration. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 2001.

Bruns, Henrietta Geisberg. Hold Dear, As Always: Jette, a German Immigrant Life in Letters. Adolf E. Schroeder and Carla Schulz-Geisberg, editors. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1988.

Bryan, William Smith, and Robert Rose. A History of the Pioneer Families of Missouri, with Numerous Sketches, Anecdotes, Adventures, etc., Relating to Early Days in Missouri. Also the Lives of Daniel Boone and the celebrated Indian chief Black Hawk, with Numerous Biographies and Histories of Primitive Institutions. St. Louis, Missouri: Bryan, Brand and Company, 1876.

Buley, Ernest Charles. South Brazil; Physical Features, Natural Resources, Means of Communication, Manufactures and Industrial Development. New York, New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1914.

Burgert, Annette Kunselman, and Henry Z. Jones, Jr. Westerwald to America: Some 18th Century German Immigrants. Camden, Maine: Picton Press, 1989.

Burnett, Robyn, and Ken Luebbering. German Settlement in Missouri: New Land, Old Ways. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1996.

Burns, E. Bradford. A History of Brazil. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

Burns, E. Bradford. "A Working Bibliography for the Study of Brazilian History." The Americas, volume 22, number 1 (July, 1965), pages 54-88.

Butterfield, Consul Willshire. History of La Crosse County, Wisconsin: Containing an Account of its Settlement, Growth, Development and Resources: an Extensive and Minute Sketch of its Cities, Towns and Villages - Their Improvements, Industries, Manufactories, Churches, Schools and Societies: its War Record, Biographical Sketches, Portraits of Prominent Men and Early Settlers: the whole Preceded by a History of Wisconsin, Statistics of the State, and an Abstract of its Laws and Constitution and the Constitution of the United States. Chicago: Western Historical Company, 1881.

Cannon, Brian Q. "Immigrants in American Agriculture." Agricultural History, volume 65, number 1 (Winter, 1991), pages 17-35.

Cemetery Records of Missouri. Compiled by the Daughers of the American Revolution Chapters of Missouri. 3 volumes. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, 1965.

Centennial History of Madison County, Illinois and Its People, 1812 to 1912. Edited and compiled by W. T. Norton; associate editors: N. G. Flagg, J. S. Hoerner. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: Lewis Publishing Company, 1912.

  • A reprint edition, with both volumes combined, was published in 1970 by Unigraphic, Inc. (Evansville, Indiana).

Centennial McKendree College with St. Clair County History. Edited by Joseph Guandolo. Lebanon, Illinois: McKendree College, 1928.

Central Wesleyan Bulletin, volume 13, number 5 (September 1914). Commemorative Volume; Fiftieth Anniversary, Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Missouri, May-June, 1914.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin. History of Early Steamboat Navigation on the Missouri River: Life and Adventures of Joseph LaBarge, Pioneer Navigator and Indian Trader For Fifty Years Identified With the Commerce of the Missouri Valley. 2 volumes. New York: Francis P. Harper, 1903.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Genealogical Society. Church Records of Germany. Series C, No. 29. Salt Lake City, Utah: Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Inc., 1975.

  • Note: Includes abbreviations and glossaries of terms used in church records.

Clapham, J. H. The Economic Development of France and Germany, 1815-1914. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1923.

Clark, Charles M. The History of the Thirty-Ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Veteran Infantry (Yates Phalanx) in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865. Chicago, Illinois: Published under the auspices of the Veteran Association of the Regiment, 1889.

Clough, Shephard Bancroft, and Charles Woolsey Cole. Economic History of Europe. 3rd edition. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1950.

Cohn, Raymond L. "Mortality on Immigrant Voyages to New York, 1836-1853." Journal of Economic History, volume 44, number 2 (June 1984), pages 289-300.

Colton, Joseph Hutchins. The Western Tourist and Emigrant's Guide, with a Compendious Gazetteer of the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, and the Territories of Wisconsin and Iowa; Being an Accurate and Concise Description of Each State, Territory and County, and an Alphabetical Arrangement of Every City, Town, Post Village or Hamlet - the County in Which They are Situated, Their Distance from the Capital of the State, and from Washington City. Also, Describing All the Principal Stage Routs [sic], Canals, Rail-Roads, and the Distances Between the Towns. Accompanied With A Correct Map, Showing the Lines of the United States' Surveys, by J. Calvin Smith. New York: J. H. Colton, 1840, ©1839.

  • Note: This title was first published in 1839 and reprinted numerous times.

Combined History of Randolph, Monroe and Perry Counties, Illinois; with Illustrations Descriptive of Their Scenery and Biographical Sketches of Some of Their Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. L. McDonough & Company, 1883.

Conard, Howard Louis, editor. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri: a Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference. 6 volumes. New York; Louisville; St. Louis: The Southern History Company, 1901.

Connelley, William Elsey. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. 5 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: Lewis Publishing Company, 1918.

Connelly, Owen. Napoleon's Satellite Kingdoms. New York: Free Press, 1965.

Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Immigrant Milwaukee, 1836-1860: Accommodation and Community in a Frontier City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Immigrants, Immigrant Neighborhoods, and Ethnic Identity: Historical Issues." Journal of American History, volume 66, number 3 (December 1979), pages 603-615.

Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Making Their Own America: Assimilation Theory and the German Peasant Pioneer. Annual Lecture Series, number 3. Washington, D.C.: German Historical Institute, 1990.

Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Peasant Pioneers: Generational Succession Among German Farmers in Frontier Minnesota" in Steven Hahn and Jonathan Prude, editors, The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation: Essays in the Social History of Rural America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), pages 259-292.

Conzen, Michael P. "Local Migration Systems in Nineteenth-Century Iowa." Geographical Review, volume 64, number 3 (July, 1974), pages 339-361.

Cott, Nancy F., Jeanne Boydston, Ann Braude, et al, editors. Root of Bitterness; Documents of the Social History of American Women. 2nd edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Northeastern University Press, 1996.

Crew, David. "Definitions of Modernity: Social Mobility in a German Town, 1880-1901." Journal of Social History, volume 7, number 1 (Autumn, 1973), pages 51-74.

Curti, Merle, and Kendall Birr. "The Immigrant and the American Image in Europe, 1860-1914." Mississippi Valley Historical Review volume 37, number 2 (September 1950), pages 203-230.

Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn. The History of Winona County, Minnesota. 2 volumes. Chicago: H. C. Cooper, Jr. & Company, 1913.

Cutright, Melitta J. An Ever-Widening Circle: The Elmhurst College Years. Elmhurst, Illinois: Elmhurst College Press, 1995.

The Daily News' History of Buchanan County and St. Joseph, Mo., from the time of the Platte Purchase to the end of the Year 1898. Preceded by a Short History of Missouri. Supplemented by Biographical Sketches of Noted Citizens Living and Dead. St. Joseph, Missouri: St. Joseph Publishing Company, 1899.

Daniels, William Haven. The Illustrated History of Methodism in Great Britain and America, from the Days of the Wesleys to the Present Time. Methodist Book Concern, 1880, ©1879.

Detjen, David W. The Germans in Missouri, 1900-1918: Prohibition, Neutrality, and Assimilation. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985.

Dickinson, Robert E. "Rural Settlements in the German Lands." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 39, number 4 (December 1949), pages 239-263.

Diekmann, John A. 1896-1936 Fortieth Anniversary of the Bethesda Institutions: Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, Ohio: s. n. (Press of the C. J. Krehbiehl Company), 1936.

Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M. Reimers. Ethnic Americas; a History of Immigration and Assimilation. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1975.

Dixon, J. M., blind editor. Centennial History of Polk County, Iowa. Authorized by the Board of Supervisors of Polk County. Mrs. J. M. Dixon and J. W. Doughty, amanuenses. Des Moines: State Register, printer, 1876.

Dixon, Nancy Wagoner. Palatine Roots: The 1710 German Settlement in New York as Experienced by Johann Peter Wagner. Camden, Maine: Picton Press, 1994.

Dobbert, G. A. "German-Americans Between New and Old Fatherland, 1870-1914." American Quarterly, volume 19, number 4 (Winter 1967), pages 663-680.

Dobbs, Hugh Jackson. History of Gage County, Nebraska: a Narrative of the Past, with Special Emphasis upon the Pioneer Period of the County's History, its Social, Commercial, Educational, Religious, and Civic Development from the Early Days to the Present Time. Lincoln, Nebraska: Western Publishing and Engraving Company, 1918.

Dollarhide, William. The Census Book: A Genealogist's Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules, and Indexes. North Salt Lake, Utah: HeritageQuest/UMI Publishing, 2001.

Domschcke, Bernhard. Twenty Months In Captivity: Memoirs Of A Union Officer In Confederate Prisons. Translation of Zwanzig Monate in Kriegs-Gefangenschaft by Frederic Trautmann. Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1987.

Dorpalen, Andreas. "The German Element and the Issues of the Civil War." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, volume 29, number 1 (June 1942), pages 55-76.

Douglas County, Kansas, Marriage Records, 1885-1897. Volume 2. Compiled by Edna Willing and Vivian Clough; indexed by Richard Wellman. Lawrence, Kansas: Douglas County Kansas Genealogical Society, 2008.

Douglass, Paul F. The Story of German Methodism: Biography of an Immigrant Soul. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Methodist Book Concern, 1939.

Drury, John. This is Tazewell County, Illinois; An Up-to-date Historical Narrative with County Map and Many Unique Aerial Photographs of Cities, Towns, Villages and Farmsteads. American Aerial County History Series, number 5. Chicago, Illinois: Loree Company, 1954.

Duden, Gottfried. Report on a Journey to the Western States of North America and a Stay of Several Years Along the Missouri (During the Years 1824, '25, '26, and 1827). James W. Goodrich, editor. Columbia, Missouri: State Historical Society of Missouri and University of Missouri Press, 1980.

  • This is an annotated English translation. According to Walter D. Kamphoefner, the introduction gives "exaggerated importance to emigration societies"

Dunlevy, James A., and Henry A. Gemery. "The Role of Migrant Stock and Lagged Migration in the Settlement Patterns of Nineteenth Century Immigrants." Review of Economics and Statistics, volume 59, number 2 (May 1977), pages 137-144.

Dunn, David, Paul N. Crusius, Josias Friedli, et al. A History of the Evangelical and Reformed Church. Philadelphia: Christian Education Press, 1961.

Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of the Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers and Other Reliable Documents and Sources. Des Moines, Iowa: Dyer Publishing Company, 1908.

Eaton, David W. How Missouri Counties, Towns and Streams Were Named. Columbia, Missouri: State Historical Society of Missouri, 1916-1918.

  • Note: A series of five articles were first published in The Missouri Historical Record between 1916 and 1918. They were later reprinted as stand-alone pamphlets.
    • First Article: Adair-Boone (The Missouri Historical Record, Volume 10, Number 3 (April, 1916), pages 197-213.
    • Second Article: Buchanan-Dekalb (The Missouri Historical Record, Volume 10, Number 4 (July, 1916), pages 263-287.
    • Third Article: Dent-Miller (The Missouri Historical Record, Volume 11, Number 2 (January, 1917), pages 164-200.
    • Fourth Article: Mississippi-Ripley (The Missouri Historical Record, Volume 11, Number 3 (April, 1917), pages 330-347.
    • Fifth Article: St. Charles- Wright (The Missouri Historical Record, Volume 13, Number 1 (October, 1918), pages 57-74.

Edwards Brothers of Missouri. An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Warren County, Missouri. Compiled, Drawn and Published From Personal Examinations and Surveys by Edwards Brothers, of Missouri. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Edwards Brothers, of Missouri, 1877.

Elliott, Joseph Peter. A History of Evansville and Vanderburgh County, Indiana. A Complete and Concise Account from the Earliest Times to the Present, Embracing Reminiscences of the Pioneers and Biographical Sketches of the Men Who Have Been Leaders in Commercial and Other Enterprises. Evansville, Indiana: Keller Printing Company, 1897.

Ellis, James Fernando. The Influence of the Environment on the Settlement of Missouri; Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Saint Louis University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. St. Louis, Missouri: Webster Publishing Company, 1929.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Buchanan County, Missouri Marriage Records, 1839-1855. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, 1961.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Lafayette County, Missouri Marriage Records, 1821-1850. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Lincoln County, Missouri Marriage Records, 1825-1844. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, 1961.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Audrain County, Missouri, 1836-1879. Chillicothe, Missouri: E. P. Ellsberry, [1960-1969?].

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Jackson County, Missouri, 1827-1860. Volume 1. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Jefferson County, Missouri 1821-1848. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Jefferson County, Missouri 1848-1869. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Saline County, Missouri 1820-1850. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, 1959.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Marriage Records of Saline County, Missouri, 1851-1869. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. Will Records of Saline County, Missouri, 1821-1863. Chillicothe, Missouri: Elizabeth Prather Ellsberry, n.d.

Elmhurst Academy and Junior College. Festschrift zum Goldenen Jubiläum = Souvenir of the Golden Jubilee, 1871-1921; June 5 1921. Elmhurst, Illinois: Elmhurst Academy and Junior College, 1921.

Engelbert Kerckerinck zur Borg, Freiherr von. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Westfälischen Bauernstandes. Edited by Hans-Joachim Behr. Reprint of the 1919 [i.e. 1912] edition, [Berlin: Verlagsbuchhandlung P. Parey]. Münster/Hiltrup: Landwirtschaftsverlag, 1988.

Engelsing, Rolf. Bremen als Auswandererhafen, 1683-1880. Bremen: Veröffentlichungen aus dem Staatsarchiv der Freien Hansestadt Bremen, 1961.

Ermarth, Michael. "Hyphenation and Hyper-Americanization: Germans of the Wilhelmine Reich View German-Americans, 1890-1914." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 21, number 2 (Winter 2002), pages 33-58.

Essellen, M. F. Geschichte der Graftschaft Tecklenburg. 1877.

Evangelical Synod of North America. Evangelical Catechism. St. Louis, Missouri: Eden Publishing House, 1929.

Everest, Kate Asaphine. "Early Lutheran Immigration to Wisconsin." Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, volume 8, (1888-1889), pages 288-298.

Everest, Kate Asaphine. How Wisconsin Came by its Large German Element. Reprinted from Volume 12 of Wisconsin Historical Collections. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1892.

Faust, Alfred Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States. 2 volumes. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1909.

Fellows, Stephen Norris. History of the Upper Iowa Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1856-1906. [Cedar Rapids, Iowa?]: [Upper Iowa Conference, Semi-Centennial Commission?], 1907.

Ferreira, Arthus Filho. História Geral do Rio Grande do Sul, 1503-1964. 3rd edition. Porto Alegre, Brasil: Editôra Globo, 1965.

Fertig, Christine. "Rural Society and Social Networks in Nineteenth-Century Westphalia: The Role of Godparenting in Social Mobility." The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, volume 39, number 4 (Spring, 2009), pages 497-522.

  • Abstract: "In nineteenth-century Westphalia (northwestern Germany), the practice of impartible inheritance excluded the siblings of farm successors from access to their parents' land. Without a land market, the only way for children who did not inherit a farm to obtain landed property, as well as high social and economic status, was to marry the heir to someone else's farm. Social-network and regression analyses show that the attainment of status depended not only on the socioeconomic standing of young people's families of origin but also on their parents' social networks. The parents who were most successful at placing their children in desirable social stations were those who occupied central positions in the godparenting network."

Fertig, Christine, Volker Lünnemann, Georg Fertig. "Inheritance, Succession, and Familial Transfer in Rural Westphalia, 1800-1900." The History of the Family, volume 10, number 3 (2005), pages 309-326.

  • Abstract: "This article compares property transfer contracts between generations in two Prussian parishes where marital law differed significantly in the 19th century. Our sources focus on two critical phases in peasants' life cycles at the time. Whereas young people could find the resources to settle down, the older generation had to plan for their retirement. Although sons had a better chance of inheriting the farm, female successors were not rare. A peasant daughter's overall prospects of becoming a peasant by inheriting her parent's farm or marrying a farm successor were almost as good as her brother's. The situation for older women, however, was subject to their legal standing with regards to marital property. When couples held joint marital property, men and women had the same opportunities to arrange for retirement. In contrast, when couples held separate marital property and male succession prevailed, older women were at an evident disadvantage."

Filby, P. William, and Mary K. Meyer, editors. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Publishing Company, 1981- .

Fischbach, Deloris, editor. Our Times: New Knoxville Sesquicentennial, 1836-1986. New Knoxville, Ohio: New Knoxville Historical Society, 1986.

Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens. Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1903.

Fischer, Wolfram. "Rural Industrialization and Population Change." Comparative Studies in Society and History, volume 15, number 2 (March 1973), pages 158-170.

Fisk, Wilbur. Hard Marching Every Day: The Civil War Letters of Private Wilbur Fisk, 1861-1865. Edited by Emil and Ruth Rosenblatt. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1992.

  • Note: This is a reprint with a new introduction of: Fisk, Wilbur. Anti-rebel: The Civil War Letters of Wilbur Fisk. Croton-on-Hudson, New York: E. Rosenblatt, 1983.

Fogleman, Aaron Spencer. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Foley, William E. The Genesis of Missouri: From Wilderness Outpost to Statehood. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1989.

Forbes, Ian L. D. "German Informal Imperialism in South America Before 1914." The Economic History Review, New Series, volume 31, number 3 (August 1978), pages 384-398.

Ford, Guy Stanton. "The Prussian Peasantry Before 1807." American Historical Review, volume 24, number 3 (April 1919), pages 358-378.

Ford, Guy Stanton. Stein and the Era of Reform in Prussia, 1807-1815. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1922.

Ford, J. E. A History of Moniteau County, Missouri. California, Missouri: M. H. Crawford, 1936.

Forster, Walter O. Zion on the Mississippi: The Settlement of the Saxon Lutherans in Missouri, 1839-1841. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953.

Forsythe, James L. "Environmental Considerations in the Settlement of Ellis County, Kansas." Agricultural History, volume 51, number 1, Agriculture in the Great Plains, 1876-1936: A Symposium (January, 1977), pages 38-50.

Frank, Emil. Heimatgeschichte aus dem Kreise Tecklenburg. 2. Auflage. Ibbenbüren: Ibbenbürener Vereinsdruckerei, 1900.

Frank, Emil. Sagen und Geschichten aus dem Kreise Tecklenburg. Ibbenbüren: Vereinsdruckerei, 1920.

Frazier, Ian. Family. New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1994.

Friederichs, Heinz Friedrich. How to Find My German Ancestors and Relatives. Neustadt, Germany: Degener, 1969.

Friesen, Gerhard K., and Walter Schatzberg, editors. The German Contribution To the Building of The Americas: Studies in Honor of Karl J. R. Arndt. Worcester, Massachusetts: Clark University Press, 1977.

Frizzell, Robert W. Independent Immigrants: A Settlement of Hanoverian Germans in Western Missouri. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2007.

Frizzell, Robert W. "Migration Chains to Illinois: The Evidence from German-American Church Records." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 7, number 1 (Fall 1987), pages 59-73.

Fulwider, Addison L. History of Stephenson County, Illinois: a Record of its Settlement, Organization, and Three-quarters of a Century of Progress. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1910.

Funke, Alfred. Aus Deutsch-Brasilien: Bilder aus dem Leben der Deutschen im Staate Rio Grande do Sul. Leipzig: Druck und Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1902.

Furtado, Celso. Economic Growth of Brazil: a Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. Translated from the Portuguese by Ricardo W. de Aguiar and Eric Charles Drysdale. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Gabaccia, Donna, editor. Seeking Common Ground: Multidisciplinary Studies Of Immigrant Women in the United States. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Gagliardo, John G. "Moralism, Rural Ideology, and the German Peasant in the Late Eighteenth Century." Agricultural History, volume 42, number 2 (April, 1968), pages 79-102.

Garlichs, Hermann. Erinnerung an den Ehrwürdigen Hermann Garlichs, Pastor der Deutschen Evangelischen Gemeinde in Brooklyn, L. I.; gest. den 24., bestattet am 27. Juni 1865. New York: H. Ludwig, Buchdrucker, 1865.

Garrison, Milton. A History of Alma, Missouri. [Place of publication not identified]: [publisher not identified], 1936.

Gasconade County Historical Society. Gasconade County Cemetery Survey. [Owensville, Missouri]: Gasconade County Historical Society, 1985.

Gasconade County Historical Society. Gasconade County History, Owensville, Missouri. 2 volumes. Owensville, Missouri: Gasconade County Historical Society, 1979-2004.

  • Volume II has the title, Gasconade County, Missouri Family History Book, and has the imprint, Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company.

Gates, Paul W. "The Homestead Law in Iowa." Agricultural History, volume 38, number 2 (April, 1964), pages 67-78.

Gauther, G. Jason. Measuring America: the Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Commerce, U. S. Census Bureau, 2002.

Gay, Kathlyn. The Germans Helped Build America. New York: J. Messner, 1971.

General Alumni Catalogue of New York University, 1833-1907. Volume 3: Medical Alumni (Alumni of the Medical Schools, 1842-1907). New York, New York: General Alumni Society, 1908.

  • Note: This appears to be a 3 volume work: Vol. 1 = College, Applied Science and Honorary Alumni. Vol. 2 = Law, Graduate, Pedagogy, Veterinary, Commerce and Collegiate Division Alumni. Vol. 3 = Medical Alumni (Alumni of the Medical Schools, 1842-1907).
  • According to the half-title of this volume, appearing before the title page, Volume 3 covers: University Medical College, 1842-1898; Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 1862-1898; University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 1899-1907.

Gerdes, Heinrich. Geschichte des Deutschen Bauernstandes. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1910.

Gerlach, Russel L. Immigrants in the Ozarks: a Study in Ethic Geography. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1976.

Geschichte von Sheboygan County. Edited by F. D. Franke. Sheboygan, Wisconsin: Franklin Publishing Company, 1898.

Gibbs, Christopher C. The Great Silent Majority: Missouri's Resistance to World War I. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1988.

Gilbert, Frank M. History of the City of Evansville and Vanderburg County Indiana. 2 volumes. Chicago: Pioneer Publishing Company, 1910.

Gilbert, Glenn G., editor. The German Language in America; a Symposium. Austin, Texas: Published for the Department of Germanic Languages of the University of Texas at Austin by the University of Texas Press, 1971.

Gillespie, Joseph. Recollections of Early Illinois and Her Noted Men: Read Before the Chicago Historical Society, March 16th, 1880. Chicago, Illinois: Fergus Printing Company, 1880.

Gillespie, Samuel, and James E. Steele. History of Clay County, Iowa; From its Earliest Settlement to 1909. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1909.

Gish, Theodore, and Richard Spuler, editors. The Eagle in the New World: German Immigration to Texas and America. College Station, Texas: Published for the Texas Committee for the Humanities by Texas A & M University Press, 1986.

Glazier, Ira, and Luigi De Rosa, editors. Migration Across Time and Nations: Population Mobility in Historical Contexts. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1986.

Glenn, Allen. History of Cass County, Missouri. Topeka, Kansas; Cleveland, Ohio: Historical Publishing Company, 1917.

Göbel, Gert. Länger als ein Menschenleben in Missouri. St. Louis, Missouri: C. Witter's Buchhandlung, 1877.

Goellner, Glen. The Saga of a Man and a House. St. Charles, Missouri: Westhoff-Black, 1956.

Goff, Nancy J. Springfield's Ethnic Heritage: The German Community. Springfield, Massachusetts: U.S.A. Bicentennial Committee of Springfield, 1976.

Golder, Christian, John H. Horst, and John G. Schaal, editors. Geschichte der Zentral Deutschen Konferenz, einschließlich der Anfangsgeschichte des Deutschen Methodismus. Herausgegeben nach Anordnung der Konferenz. Cincinnati, Ohio: Jennings and Graham, 1907.

Gomes, José Coelho. Empire of Brazil: Commercial and Emigrational Guide to Brazil. Compiled and translated from Official Publications by José Coelho Gomes. Second edition. Washington, D.C.: Gibson Brothers, Printers and Bookbinders, 1886.

Good, James I. History of the Reformed Church in the U. S. in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1911.

Graham, Douglas H., and Sérgio Buarque de Holanda Filho. Migration, Regional and Urban Growth, and Development in Brazil: a Selective Analysis of the Historical Record, 1872-1970. São Paulo, Brasil: Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 1971 - .

"Great Churches of America: II: Evangelical and Reformed, New Knoxville, Ohio." Christian Century (22 February 1950), pages 323-328.

Great River Genealogical Society. Cemeteries of Adams County, Illinois. 6 volumes. Quincy, Illinois: Great River Genealogical Society, 1987- .

Grebner, Constantin. We Were The Ninth: A History of the Ninth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, April 17, 1861, to June 7, 1864. Translated and edited by Frederic Trautmann. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1987.

Greenberg, David B., editor. Land That Our Fathers Plowed: The Settlement of Our Country as Told by the Pioneers Themselves and Their Contemporaries. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969.

Gregory, Ralph. The Autobiography of Henry Wellenkamp, 1822-1907. St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Historical Society, 1963. Reprinted from: Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society, volume 19, number 4, part 1 (July 1963), pages 311-327.

Gregory, Ralph. The German-Americans in the Washington, Missouri Area. Washington, Missouri: Missourian Publishing Company, 1981.

Greiwe, Franz. Das Amt Rheine; Raum, Geschichte, Brauchtum. Mitarbeit: Bernhard Festring und Helmut Gude. Rheine, BRD: Amt Rheine, 1974.

Griffen, Clyde. "Occupational Mobility in Nineteenth-Century America: Problems and Possibilities." Journal of Social History, volume 5, number 3 (Spring, 1972), pages 310-330.

Gross, Stephen. "Handing Down the Farm: Values, Strategies and Outcomes in Inheritance Patterns Among Rural German Americans." Journal of Family History, volume 21 (1966), pages 192-217.

Gross, Stephen J. "The Battle Over the Cold Spring Dam: Farm-Village Conflict and Contested Identity Among Rural German Americans" Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 21, number 1 (Fall 2001), pages 83-117.

Gross, Stephen J. "Perils of Prussianism: Main Street German America, Local Autonomy, and the Great War." Agricultural History, volume 78, number 1 (Winter, 2004), pages 78-116.

Gunlicks, Arthur B. "Administrative Centralization and Decentralization in the Making and Remaking of Modern Germany." Review of Politics, volume 46, number 3 (July 1984), pages 323-345.

Gunnemann, Louis H. The Shaping of the United Church of Christ. New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: United Church Press, 1977.

Häderle, Irene. Deutsche Kirchliche Frauenvereine in Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1870-1930: Eine Studie über die Bedingungen und Formen der Akkulturation Deutscher Einwanderinnen und Ihrer Töchter in den USA. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1997.

Hagwood, John A. The Tragedy of German-America: the Germans in the United States of America during the Nineteenth Century - and After. New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1940.

Hahn, Steven, and Jonathan Prude, editors. The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation: Essays in the Social History of Rural America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Haines, Michael R. "French Migration to the United States: 1820 to 1950." Annales de Demographie Historique, 2000:1, pages 77-91.

Haines, Michael R. "Industrial Work and the Family Life Cycle, 1889-1890." Research in Economic History, volume 4 (1979), pages 289-356.

Hair, James T. Gazetteer of Madison County: Containing Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Alton City, Upper Alton, Edwardsville, Collinsville, Highland, Troy, Monticello, Marine, Bethalto, and Other Towns, Including Some Account of the Resources of the Various Townships: Together With an Exhibit of the Manufacturing Establishments, Newspapers, Banks, Churches, Schools, and Other Institutions of the County: To Which is Added a Directory of the Altons, and a List of the Names, Occupation and Residence Address of the Merchants, Manufacturers and Farmers of the Townships and Villages of the County. Carbondale, Illinois: James T. Hair, 1866.

Haites, Erik F, and James Mak. "Steamboating on the Mississippi, 1810-1860: A Purely Competitive Industry." The Business History Review, volume 45, number 1 (Spring, 1971), pages 52-78.

Hall, Charles M. The Atlantic Bridge to Germany. 5 volumes. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1974-1978.

  • Note: v. 1. Baden-Wuerttemberg; v. 2. Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz (The Palatinate); v. 3. Bavaria (Bayern); v. 4. Saarland, Alsace-Lorraine, Switzerland; v. 5 Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen.

Haller, Charles R. Across the Atlantic and Beyond: The Migration of German and Swiss Immigrants to America. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage, 1993.

Handbuch der Historischen Stätten Deutschlands. Volume 3: Nordrhein-Westfalen. 2nd, revised edition. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag, 1970.

Handlin, Oscar. Immigration as a Factor in American History. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1959.

Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American People. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1951.

Hanson, Marcus Lee. The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860; A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1940.

Hareven, Tamara K. "Cycles, Courses and Cohorts: Reflections on Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to the Historical Study of Family Development." Journal of Social History, volume 12, number 1 (Autumn 1978), pages 97-109.

Hareven, Tamara K. "The Family as Process: The Historical Study of the Family Cycle." Journal of Social History, volume 7, number 3 (Spring 1974), pages 322-329.

Hareven, Tamara K. editor. Family and Kin in Urban Communities, 1700-1930. New York: New Viewpoints, 1977.

Harrison, Samuel F. History of Hermann, Missouri. Hermann: Historic Hermann, Inc, 1966.

Hartmann, J. Geschichte der Provinz Westfalen. Berlin: Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1912.

Haselmayer, Louis A. "German Methodist Colleges in the West." Methodist History, volume 2, number 4 (1964), pages 35-43.

Hedges, James B. "The Colonization Work of the Northern Pacific Railroad." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, volume 13, number 3 (December 1926), pages 311-342.

Hegi, Ursula. Tearing the Silence; On Being German in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Helbich, Wolfgang, and Walter D. Kamphoefner, editors. German-American Immigration and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Madison, Wisconsin: Max-Kade Institute for German-American Studies, University of Wisconsin, 2004.

Heming, Carol Piper. "Schulhaus To Schoolhouse: The German School At Hermann, Missouri, 1839-1955." Missouri Historical Review, volume 82, number 3 (1988), pages 280-298.

Henke, E. W., W. H. Rolfing, Friedrich Schaub, L. J. Brenner, and J. F. Hartke. Die Nordwest Deutsche Konferenz der Bischöflichen Methodistenkirche: Geschichtlich, Sachlich und Biographisch Geschildert. Charles City, Iowa: Methodist Episcopal Church, Northwest German Conference, 1913.

Henretta, James A. "Families and Farms: Mentalité in Pre-Industrial America." William and Mary Quarterly, volume 35 (1978), pages 3-32.

Henrich, Joseph, and Richard Mcelreath. "Are Peasants Risk-Adverse Decision Makers?" Current Anthropology, volume 43, number 1 (February 2002), pages 172-181.

Hewes, Leslie, and Christian L. Jung. "Early Fencing on the Middle Western Prairie." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 71, number 2 (June 1981), pages 177-201.

Higham, John, editor. Ethnic Leadership in America. Baltimore: Maryland, 1978.

  • See: Frederick Luebke, "The Germans," pages 64-90.

Hine, Robert V. Community on the American Frontier: Separate But Not Alone. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Hinman, Gertrude Neumann. The William Gottlieb Neumann Genealogy, 1790-1958. 2 volumes. Detroit, Michigan: Gertrude N. Hinman, 1958.

  • Abstract: "William (Wilhelm) Gottlieb Neumann was born 26 July 1790 in Clausdorf, Germany. His parents were Christian Frederick Neumann and Christina Bredon. He had three children by his first wife. His second wife was Catherine Kohl (1805-1880). They had eleven children, all born in Langenlonsheim, Germany. They emigrated in 1857 and settled in Illinois. William died 25 December 1861 in Henry County, Illinois. Descendants and relatives lived mainly in Illinois and Nebraska. Includes Ausmus, Hinman, Kelly, Poppy, Stiefel and related families."

History of Delaware County, Iowa, Containing a History of the County, its Cities, Towns, etc., a Biographical Directory of its Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Delaware County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, etc. Chicago, Illinois: Western Historical Company, 1878.

The History of Des Moines County, Iowa, Containing a History of the County, its Cities, Towns, &c, a Biographical Directory of Citizens, War record of its volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Des Moines County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, &c. Chicago, Illinois: Western Historical Company, 1879.

History of Floyd County, Iowa; Together with Sketches of its Cities, Village and Townships, Educational, Religious, Civil, Military, and Political History; Portraits of Prominent Persons, and Biographies of Representative Citizens. History of Iowa, Embracing Accounts of the Pre-Historic Races, Aborigines, French, English and American Conquests, and a General Review of its Civil, Political and Military History. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: Inter-State Publishing Company, 1882.

History of Franklin, Jefferson, Washington, Crawford and Gasconade Counties, Missouri: From the Earliest Time to the Present; Together with Sundry Personal, Business and Professional Sketches and Numerous Family Records; Besides a Valuable Fundof [sic] Notes, Original Observations, etc., etc. Chicago, Illinois: Goodspeed Publishing Company, 1888.

History of Hamilton and Clay Counties, Nebraska. Supervising editors George L. Burr and O. O. Buck. Compiled by Dale P. Stough. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1921.

History of Henry County, Iowa, Containing a History of the County, Its Cities, Towns, etc., a Biographical Directory of Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Henry County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, etc. Chicago, Illinois: Western Historical Company, 1879.

History of Holt and Atchison Counties, Missouri, Containing a History of These Counties, Their Cities, Towns, etc., etc., Biographical Sketches of Their Citizens, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of Missouri, Map of Holt and Atchison Counties, etc. St. Joseph, Missouri: National Historical Company, 1882.

History of Holt County, Missouri From the Time of the Platte Purchase to the End of the year 1916, Preceeded [sic] by a Short History of Missouri; Supplemented by Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens by the History Publishing Company. St. Joseph, Missouri: History Publishing Company at the press of the Midland Printing Company, [1917?].

History of Howard and Cooper Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources, Including a History of its Townships, Towns, and Villages; Together With a Condensed History of Missouri, a Reliable and Detailed History of Howard and Cooper Counties - Its Pioneer Record, Resources, Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens, General and Local Statistics of Great Value, Incidents and Reminiscences. St. Louis, Missouri: National Historical Company, 1883.

History of Iowa County, Iowa, Containing a History of the County, Its Cities, Towns, &c., Biographical Sketches of Its Citizens, War Record of Its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Iowa County, Constitution of Iowa, Miscellaneous Matters, &c., &c. Des Moines: Union Historical Company, Birdsall, Williams and Company, 1881.

History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois, Containing a History of the County - Its Cities, Towns, etc., a Biographical Directory of its Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the Northwest, History of Illinois, Map of Jo Daviess County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, etc. Chicago, Illinois: H. F. Kett & Company, 1878.

History of Kossuth, Hancock, and Winnebago Counties, Iowa: Together with Sketches of Their Cities, Villages, and Townships, Educational, Civil, Military, and Political History; Portraits of Prominent Persons, and Biographies of Representative Citizens. History of Iowa, Embracing Accounts of the Prehistoric Races, and a Brief Review of its Civil and Military History. Springfield, Illinois: Union Publishing Company, 1884.

History of Lafayette County, Mo., Carefully Written and Compiled From the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources, Including a History of Its Townships, Cities, Towns And Villages, Together With a Condensed History of Missouri; the Constitution of The United States, and State of Missouri; a Military Record of Volunteers In Either Army of the Great Civil War; General and Local Statistics; Miscellany; Reminiscences, Grave, Tragic and Humorous; Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Citizens Identified with the Interests of the County. St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Historical Company, 1881.

History of Lincoln County, Missouri, From the Earliest Time to the Present: Including a Department Devoted to the Preservation of Sundry Personal, Business, Professional and Private Records, Besides a Valuable Fund of Notes, Original Observations, etc., etc. Chicago, Illinois: Goodspeed Publishing, 1888.

History of Macoupin County, Illinois; Biographical and Pictorial. Charles A. Walker, supervising editor. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clark Publishing Company, 1911.

History of Madison County, Illinois: Illustrated: with Biographical Sketches of Many Prominent Men and Pioneers. Edwardsville, Illinois: W. R. Brink and Company, 1882.

History of Minier, Illinois. E. J. Graber, editor. Minier, Illinois: Centennial Committees, 1967.

History of Muscatine County, Iowa: Containing a History of the County, Its Cities, Towns, &c., Biographical Sketches of Citizens, War Record of Its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Muscatine County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, &c., &c. Chicago, Illinois: Western Historical Company, 1879.

History of Peoria County, Illinois: Containing a History of the Northwest, History of Illinois, History of the County, its Early Settlement, Growth, Development, Resources, etc., etc., a Sketch of its Cities and Towns, Their Improvements, Industries, Manufactories, Churches, Schools, etc., etc., a War Record of its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Biographical Sketches, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, Map of Peoria County, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, Tables, etc., etc. Chicago, Illinois: Johnson & Company, 1880.

The History of Polk County, Iowa, Containing a History of The County, Its Cities, Towns, &c., Biographical Sketches of Its Citizens, War Record of Its Volunteers In The Late Rebellion, General And Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers And Prominent Men, History of The Northwest, History of Iowa, Map of Polk County, Constitution of Iowa, Miscellaneous Matters, &c., &c. Des Moines, Iowa: Union Historical Company, 1880.

History of Renville County, Minnesota. Compiled by Franlyn Curtiss-Wedge. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: H. C. Cooper, Jr. & Company, 1916.

History of St. Charles, Montgomery, and Warren counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled From the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources, Including a History Of Their Townships, Towns and Villages, Together With a Condensed History of Missouri; a Reliable and Detailed History of St. Charles, Montgomery and Warren Counties - Their Pioneer Record, Resources, Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens; General and Local Statistics of Great Value; Incidents and Reminiscences. St. Louis, Missouri: National Historical Company, 1885.

History of Tazewell County, Illinois; Together With Sketches of its Cities, Villages and Townships, Educational, Religious, Civil, Military, and Political History; Portraits of Prominent Persons and Biographies of Representative Citizens. History of Illinois; Embracing Accounts of the Pre-Historic Races, Aborigines, French, English and American Conquests, and a General Review of its Civil, Political, and Military History. Digest Of State Laws. Chicago, Illinois: Charles C. Chapman and Company, 1879.

A History of the Sixty-sixth Field Artillery Brigade, American Expeditionary Forces; Composed of the 146th Field Artillery and the 148th Field Artillery; National Guard Troops from the Western States of Colorado, Wyoming, Washingtion, Idaho, Oregon, New Mexico. Edited by William R. Wright. Denver, Colorado: Smith-Brooks Printing Company, [1919?].

History of Winnebago County and Hancock County, Iowa: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: Pioneer Publishing Company, 1917.

History of Winona County, Together With Biographical Matter, Statistics, Etc. Gathered From Matter Furnished By Interviews With Old Settlers, County, Township And Other Records, and Extracts From Files of Papers, Pamphlets, and Such Other Sources As Have Been Available. Chicago, Illinois: H. H. Hill and Company, 1883.

History of Winona and Olmsted Counties. Together with Biographical Matter, Statistics, etc. Gathered from Matter Furnished by Interviews with Old Settlers, County, Township and Other Records, and Extracts from Files of Papers, Pamphlets, and Such Other Sources as Have Been Available. Chicago, Illinois: H. H. Hill and Company, 1883.

Hobart, Chauncey, D.D. History of Methodism in Minnesota. Red Wing, Minnesota: Red Wing Printing Company, 1887.

Hochstadt, Steve. "Migration and Industrialization in Germany, 1815-1977." Social Science History, volume 5, number 4 (Autumn, 1981), pages 445-468.

Hochstadt, Steve. Mobility and Modernity: Migration in Germany, 1820-1989. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Hoerder, Dirk. "From Immigration to Migration Systems: New Concepts in Migration History." OAH Magazine of History, volume 14, number 1 (Fall, 1999), pages 5-11.

Hoerder, Dirk. "The Traffic of Emigration Via Bremen/Bremerhaven: Merchants' Interests, Protective Legislation, and Migrants' Experiences." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 13, number 1 (Fall, 1993), pages 68-101.

Hoerder, Dirk and Jörg Nagler, editors. People In Transit: German Migrations in Comparative Perspective, 1820-1930. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Hoffert, Sylvia D. "Childbearing on the Trans-Mississippi Frontier, 1830-1900." Western Historical Quarterly, volume 22, number 3 (August 1991), pages 272-288.

Horstmann, Julius H., and Herbert H. Wernecke. Through Four Centuries: the Story of the Beginnings of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, in the Old World and the New, from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century. St. Louis, Missouri: Eden Publishing House, 1938.

Houck, Louis. A History of Missouri From the Earliest Explorations and Settlements Until the Admission of the State into the Union. 3 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: R. R. Donnelley & Sons, 1908.

Houston, Rab, and K. D. M. Snell. "Proto-Industrialization? Cottage Industry, Social Change, and Industrial Revolution." Historical Journal, volume 27, number 2 (June 1984), pages 473-492.

Howell, Martha, & Walter Prevenier. From Reliable Sources; an Introduction to Historical Methods. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Hudson, John C. "Migration to an American Frontier." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 66, number 2 (June 1976), pages 242-265.

Hudson, John C. "North American Origins of Middlewestern Frontier Populations." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 78, number 3 (September 1988), pages 395-413.

Hunsche, Friedrich Ernst. 250 Jahre Landkreis Tecklenburg, 1707-1957. Lengerich (Westfalen): Kleins Druck- und Verlagsanstalt Gmbh., 1957.

Hunsche, Friedrich Ernst. Brochterbeck: Aus der Geschichte eines Dorfes der alten Grafschaft Tecklenburg. Brochterbeck (Westfalen): Gemeinde Brochterbeck in Zusammenarbeit mit der Amtsverwaltung Tecklenburg und dem Heimatverein Brochterbeck, 1969.

Hunt, Herbert, and Floyd C. Kaylor. Washington, West of the Cascades: Historical and Descriptive; the Explorers, the Indians, the Pioneers, the Modern. 3 volumes. Chicago, Seattle, Tacoma: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1917.

Illinois. Military and Naval Department. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Illinois. 9 volumes. Springfield, Illinois: [state printers], 1886-1902.

Illustrated Atlas Map of St. Charles County, MO.; Carefully Compiled from Personal Examinations and Surveys. Illinois: W. R. Brink & Company, 1875.

An Illustrated Historical Atlas Map of Holt County, Mo. Carefully Compiled from Personal Examinations and Surveys. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Brink, McDonough & Company, 1877.

Immanuel Evangelical and Reformed Church. Anniversary Souvenir, 1839-1848: To Commemorate the 100th Anniversary as a Self-supporting Church and the 109th Anniversary of the Founding of Immanuel Evangelical and Reformed Church. Holstein, Missouri: Immanuel Evangelical and Reformed Church, [1948].

Immanuels United Church of Christ. Anniversary Book Committee. The History of Our Church, 1839-1989: One Hundred Fifty Years. Holstein, Missouri: Immanuels United Church of Christ, 1989.

In the Foot-Prints of the Pioneers of Stephenson County, Illinois: A Genealogical Record. Freeport, Illinois: Pioneer Publishing Company, 1900.

Jacoby, Henry Sylvester. Jacoby Family Genealogy; a Record of the Descendants of the Pioneer Peter Jacoby of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania: Committee on Publication, 1930.

Jacoby, Ludwig Sigismund. Geschichte des Amerikanischen Methodismus. Bremen: Verlag des Traktathauses, 1870.

Jacoby, Ludwig Sigismund. Handbuch des Methodismus, Enthaltend die Geschichte, Lehre, das Kirchenregiment und eigenthümliche Gebraüche desselben. Nach authentischen Quellen bearbeitet. Zweite Auflage. Bremen: Verlag von Joh. Georg Hense, 1855.

Jahn, Adalbert. Wichtige Beiträge zur Einwanderung und Kolonisation in Brasilien. Berlin: Verlag von J. Guttentag, 1874.

James, Preston E. "Expanding Settlements of Southern Brazil." Geographical Review, volume 30, number 4 (October 1940), pages 601-626.

Jefferson, Mark. "Pictures from Southern Brazil." Geographical Review, volume 16, number 4 (October 1926), pages 521-547.

Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Frontier Women: "Civilizing" the West? 1840-1880. Revised edition. New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

Jellinghaus, H. Nachrichten über Dörfer und Bauernhöfer um Osnabrück. Osnabrück: J. G. Kisling, 1924.

  • Reprinted: Osnabrück: Wenner, 2004.

Jellinghaus, Hermann Friedrich. Die Westfälischen Ortsnamen nach ihren Grundwötern. Kiel und Leipzig: Verlag von Lipsius & Tischer, 1896.

  • 2. vermehrte Ausgabe. Kiel: Lipsius & Tischer, 1902.
  • 3. vermehrte Ausgabe. Osnabrück: Schöningh, 1923. Reprinted: Hildesheim; New York: G. Olms, 1971.

Johnson, Hildegard Binder. "Factors Influencing the Distribution of the German Pioneer Population in Minnesota." Agricultural History, volume 19, number 1 (January 1945), pages 39-57.

Johnson, Hildegard Binder. "A Historical Perspective on Form and Function in Upper Midwest Rural Settlement." Agricultural History, volume 48, number 1, Farming in the Midwest, 1840-1900: A Symposium (January 1974), pages 11-25.

Johnson, Hildegard Binder. "The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 41, number 1 (March 1951), pages 1-41.

Johnson, William Foreman. History of Cooper County Missouri. Topeka, Kansas: Historical Publishing Company, 1919.

Jones, Henry Z. The Palatine Families of New York: A Study of the German Immigrants Who Arrived in Colonial New York in 1710. Universal City, California: H. Z. Jones, 1985

Jordan, Terry G. German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-Century Texas. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1966.

Joulia, Antoinette. "Ein französischer Verwaltungsbezirk in Deutschland. Das Oberemsdepartement (1810-1813)." Osnabrücker Mitteilungen, volume 80 (1973), pages 21-102.

Joulia, Antoinette. "Les Institutions Administratives des Départements Hanséatiques." Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, Tome 17e, No. 3, La France a l'époque Napoléonienne (July-September 1970), pages 880-892.

Joyce, Lilian Elwyn Elliott. Brazil Today and Tomorrow. New York, New York: Macmillan, 1917.

Jubiläumsbuch der St. Louis Deutschen Konferenz. Herausgegeben nach ihrer Anordnung zur Feier ihres fünfundzwanzigjährigen Bestandes von E. C. Magaret, Friedrich Munz, Geo. B. Addicks. Cincinnati, Ohio: Jennings und Graham, [1905?].

Juern, Joan M. Call To the Frontier: Gottfried Duden's 1800's Book Stimulated Immigration to Missouri. Augusta, Missouri: Mallinckrodt Communications Research, 1999.

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Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Immigrant Epistolary and Epistemology: On the Motivators and Mentality of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 28, number 3 (Spring, 2009), pages 34-54.

Kamphoefner, Walter D. The Westfalians: From Germany to Missouri. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Kamphoefner, Walter D., and Wolfgang Helbich, editors. Germans in the Civil War: the Letters They Wrote Home. Translated by Susan Carter Vogel. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, editors. News From the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

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Keil, Hartmut, and John B. Jentz. German Workers in Chicago: A Documentary History of Working-Class Culture From 1850 to World War I. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

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Kersten, Earl W., Jr. "Changing Economy and Landscape in a Missouri Ozarks Area." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 48, number 4 (December 1958), pages 398-418.

Kidder, Daniel Parish, and James Cooley Fletcher. Brazil and the Brazilians: Portrayed in Historical and Descriptive Sketches. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Childs & Peterson, 1857.

Kingsbury, George W. History of Dakota Territory. 5 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1915.

Kircher, Henry A. A German in the Yankee Fatherland: The Civil War Letters of Henry A. Kircher. Edited by Earl J. Hess. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1983.

Kirk, Gordon W., Jr., and Carolyn Tyirin Kirk. "Migration, Mobility and the Transformation of the Occupational Structure in an Immigrant Community: Holland, Michigan, 1850-80." Journal of Social History, volume 7, number 2 (Winter, 1974), pages 142-164.

Kisch, Herbert. "The Impact of the French Revolution on the Lower Rhine Textile Districts - Some Comments on Economic Development and Social Change." Economic History Review, New Series, volume 15, number 2 (December 1962), pages 304-327.

Kisch, Herbert. "The Textile Industries in Silesia and the Rhineland: A Comparative Study in Industrialization." The Journal of Economic History, volume 19, number 4 (December 1959), pages 541-564.

Klauprecht, Emil. Deutsche Chronik in der Geschichte des Ohio-Tales und Seiner Haupstadt Cincinnati in's Besondere: Umfassend eine Ausführliche Darstellung der Abentheuer, Ansiedlungen und des Allgemeinen Wirkens der Deutschen im Flußgebiete von der Entdeckung des Mississippi-Thales an bis auf Unsere Tage. Cincinnati, Ohio: G. Hof and M. A. Jacobi, 1864.

Kleinschmidt, Arthur. Geschichte des Königreichs Westfalen. Gotha: Perthes, 1893.

Klindworth, Edward C. The Beginnings of Connell. Portland, Oregon: E. C. Klindworth, 1966.

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Kluck, Patricia Ann. Decision-making Among Descendants of German Immigrant Farmers in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil. Latin American Studies Program; Dissertation Series, Number 61 (August 1975). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1975.

  • "A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy."

Klueting, Harm. Geschichte Westfalens: Das Land zwischen Rhein und Weser vom 8. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert. Paderborn: Bonifatius, 1998.

Kocha, Jugen. "Family and Class Formation: Intergenerational Mobility and Marriage Patterns in Nineteenth-Century Westphalian Towns." Journal of Social History, volume 17, number 3 (Spring 1984), pages 411-433.

Koenigswald, Gustavo von. Rio Grande do Sul. São Paulo, Brasil: Verlag des Verfassers, 1898.

Kohl, Wilhelm. "Steuerlisten des Fürstbistums Münster." Beiträge zür westfälischen Familienforschung, Band 15, (1957), pages [?].

Kollmann, Wolfgang and Peter Marschalck. "German Emigration to the United States." Perspectives in American History, volume 7 (1973), pages 499-554.

Konrad, J. German Family Research Made Simple. 2nd edition. Munroe Falls, Ohio: Summit Publications, 1977.

Kopp, Fr. Charakter-Bilder aus der Geschichte des Methodismus. Vierzehn Vorlesungen Über Ausserordentliche Persönlichkeiten und Hauptbewegungen des Methodismus in Amerika und Deutschland, Gehalten von Verschiedenen Deutschen Predigern vor den Studenten des Deutsch-Englischen Collegiums zu Galena, Ill., im Frühjahr 1881. Cincinnati, Ohio: Walden & Stowe, 1881.

Körner, Gustav Philipp. Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika, 1818-1848. Cincinnati, Ohio: A. E. Wilde, 1880.

Korspeter, Gustav. Der Kreis Tecklenburg. Kreis- und Stadthandbücher des Westfälischen Heimatbundes, Bänchen 6. Münster: Westfälischer Heimatbund, 1949.

Koseritz, Carlos von. Bilder aus Brasilien. Leipzig und Berlin: Verlag von Wilhelm Friedrich, 1885.

Der Kreis Tecklenburg. Edited by Kreis Tecklenburg. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag, 1973.

Kriege, Otto E. Geschichte des Methodismus. Cincinnati, Ohio: Jennings and Graham, 1909.

Kriege, Otto, Gustav Becker, Matthäus Herrmann, and C. L. Körner, editors. Souvenir der West Deutschen Konferenz der Bischöflichen Methodistenkircke. S.l.: s.n., 1906. (printed at Cincinnati, Ohio by Jennings and Graham).

Krueger, Lillian. "Motherhood on the Wisconsin Frontier (I)." The Wisconsin Magazine of History, volume 29, number 2 (December 1945), pages 157-183.

Krueger, Lillian. "Motherhood on the Wisconsin Frontier (II)." The Wisconsin Magazine of History, volume 29, number 3 (March 1946), pages 333-346.

Kulikoff, Allan. The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism. Charlottesvillle, Virginia: 1992.

Lafayette County Historical Society. Continuing the History of Lafayette County. Higginsville, Missouri: Lafayette County Historical Society, 2002.

Lafayette County Historical Society. History of the Lafayette County Missouri Rural Schools. Compiled and created by members and friends of the Lafayette County Historical Society. Higginsville, Missouri: Lafayette County Historical Society, 1996.

Landon, Charles E. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business, volume 33, number 1 (January, 1960), pages 43-62.

Lange, Henry. Südbrasilien: Die Provinzen São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina und Paraná, mit Rücksicht auf die Deutsche Kolonisation. Zweite erweiterte Auflage. Leipzig: Verlag von Eduard Baldamus, 1888.

Langer, William L. The Revolutions of 1848; Chapters from Political and Social Upheaval. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.

Laslett, Peter. "The Comparative History of Household and Family." Journal of Social History, volume 4, number 1 (Autumn, 1970), pages 75-87.

Lee, W. R. "Economic Development and the State in Nineteenth-Century Germany." Economic History Review, New Series, volume 41, number 3 (August 1988), pages 346-367.

Lemon, James T. "The Agricultural Practices of National Groups in Eighteenth-Century Southeastern Pennsylvania." Geographical Review, volume 56, number 4 (October 1966), pages 467-496.

Lemon, James T. "Early Americans and Their Social Environment." Journal of Historical Geography, volume 6 (1980), pages 115-131.

Levi, Kate Everest. "Geographical Origins of German Immigration to Wisconsin." Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, volume 14, (1898), pages 341-393.

Levine, Bruce C. The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Lewis, Ann Laemmlen. Immigrant Case Study: Peter Heinrich Bastert Family. privately printed, no date.

List of Connell High School Graduates and Early History of the Schools, Community, and Franklin County. Connell, Washington: n.d.

Love, Joseph LeRoy. Rio Grande do Sul and Brazilian Regionalism, 1882-1930. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1971.

Luebke, David. "German Exodus: Historical Perspectives on the Nineteenth Century Emigration." Yearbook of German-American Studies volume 20 (1986), pages 1-17.

Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty; German-Americans and World War I. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974.

Luebke, Frederick C. Germans in Brazil: A Comparative History of Cultural Conflict During World War I. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

Luebke, Frederick C. Germans in the New World: Essays in the History of Immigration. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Mallinckrodt, Anita M. From Knights to Pioneers: One German Family in Westphalia and Missouri. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994.

Mallinckrodt, Anita M. How They Came: German Immigration from Prussia to Missouri. Augusta, Missouri: Mallinckrodt Communications Research, 1988.

Mallinckrodt, Anita M. Why They Left: German Immigration from Prussia to Missouri. Revised edition. Washington, D.C.: Mallinckrodt Communications Research, 1988.

Mann, Heinrich. Ludwig S. Jakoby. Bremen: Verlag des Traktathauses; Zürich: Buch- und Verlagshandlung, 1892.

Marquette, David. A History of Nebraska Methodism: First Half-century, 1854-1904. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Western Methodist Book Concern Press, 1904.

Marriot, J. A. R., and C. Grant Robertson. The Evolution of Prussia: the Making of an Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1915.

Marshall, Howard Wight. "Meat Preservation on the Farm in Missouri's 'Little Dixie'." Journal of American Folklore, volume 92, number 366 (October- December, 1979), pages 400-417.

Marshall, Howard Wight. "The Pelster Housebarn: Endurance of Germanic Architecture on the Midwestern Frontier." Material Culture, volume 18, number 2 (Summer 1986), pages 65-104.

Marshall, Howard Wight, and James W. Goodrich, editors. The German-American Experience in Missouri: Essays in Commemoration of the Tricentennial of German Immigration to America, 1683-1983. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri-Columbia, 1986.

Masterson, V. V. The Katy Railroad and the Last Frontier. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952.

Mayhew, Alan. Rural Settlement and Farming in Germany. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Maynes, Mary Jo, Birgitte Søland & Christina Benninghaus, editors. Secret Gardens, Satanic Mills: Placing Girls in European History, 1750-1960. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press of Kentucky, 2005.

McCaffery, Robert Paul. Islands of Deutschtum: German-Americans in Manchester, New Hampshire and Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1870-1942. New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

McIlwraith, Thomas F. "Freight Capacity and Utilization of the Erie and Great Lakes Canals before 1850." Journal of Economic History, volume 36, number 4 (December, 1976), pages 852-877.

McKeith, George Robert. Pioneer Stories of the Pioneers of Filmore and Adjoining Counties. Exeter, Nebraska: Press of Fillmore County News, 1915.

McMurray, William J., editor. History of Auglaize County, Ohio. 2 volumes. Indianapolis, Indiana: Historical Publishing Company, 1923.

McQuillen, D. Aiden. Prevailing Over Time: Ethnic Adjustment on the Kansas Prairies, 1875-1925. Lincoln, Nebraska: 1990.

Meinershagen, Fred H. The Prosperous and Diligent Blacksmith from Wersen: a Genealogy of Heinrich Adolph Meinershagen, January 1, 1785-May 22, 1870. Columbia, Missouri: Fred H. Meinershagen, 1973.

Meinershagen, Fred H. The Prosperous and Diligent Blacksmith from Wersen Revisited. Columbia, Missouri: Fred H. Meinershagen, 1998.

Mejborg, Reinhold Frederik Severin. Das Bauernhaus im Herzogthum Schleswig und das Leben des Schleswigischen Bauernstandes im 16., 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Deutsche Ausgabe besorgt von Richard Haupt. Schleswig: Verlag von Julius Bergas, 1896.

Memoirs of Waukesha County from the Earliest Historical Times Down to the Present, with Special Chapters on Various Subjects, Including Each of the Different Towns, and a Genealogical and Biographical Record of Representative Families in the County, Prepared from Data Obtained from Original Sources of Information.. Theron W. Haight, editor. Madison, Wisconsin: Western Historical Association, 1907.

Memorial and Biographical Record and Illustrated Compendium of Biography; Containing a Compendium of Local Biography, Including Biographical Sketches of Hundreds of Prominent Old Settlers and Representative Citizens of Butler, Polk, Seward, York and Fillmore Counties, Nebraska, With a Review of Their Life Work; Their Identity with the Growth and Development of this Region; Reminiscences of Personal History and Pioneer Life; and other Interesting and Valuable Matter which should be Preserved in History. Also a Compendium of National Biography.... Chicago, Illinois: George A. Ogle & Company, 1899.

Men of Minnesota: A Collection of the Portraits of Men Prominent in Business and Professional Life in Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Company, 1902.

Men of Minnesota: A Collection of the Portraits of Men Prominent in Business and Professional Life in Minnesota. 2nd edition. St. Paul, Minnesota: R. L. Polk & Company, 1915.

Merrill, Michael. "Cash is Good to Eat: Self-Sufficiency and Exchange in the Rural Economy of the United States." Radical History Review, volume 3 (1977), pages 42-71.

Merry, John F., editor. History of Delaware County, Iowa and its People. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1914

Methodism in La Crosse from 1849 to 1904. [La Crosse, Wisconsin?]: [publisher not identified], 1904.

Methodist Episcopal Church. Western Conference. The Rise of Methodism in the West: Being the Journal of the Western Conference, 1800-1811. Edited, with notes and introduction, by William Warren Sweet. New York; Cincinnati, Ohio: The Methodist Book Concern, 1920.

Meurer, H. Das Hollandsgehen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Lage der Heuerleute in Osnabrückischen. Osnabrück: Verlag der Rackhorstischen Buchhandlung, 1871.

Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon. Ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens. 6te. gänzlich neubearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. 24 Bände. Leipzig; Wien: Bibliographisches Institut, 1906-1913.

Meyer's Konversationslexikon: Eine Encyklopädie des allgemeinen Wissens. 4te. gänzlich umgearbeitete Auflage. 19 Bände. Leipzig; Wien: Biographisches Institut, 1885-1892.

Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. Fünfte vollständig neubearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. Auf Grund amtlicher Unterlagen von Reichs-, Landes- und Gemeindebehörden herausgegeben von Dr. E. Uetrecht. Mit 51 Stadtplänen, 19 Umgebungs- und Übersichtskarten, einer Verkehrskarte und vielen statistischen Beilagen. Zwei Bände. Leipzig; Wien: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913.

Miller, Adam, editor. Experience of German Methodist Preachers. Collected and arranged by Rev. Adam Miller, M.D. With an introduction by Charles Elliott, D.D. and a preliminary discourse by L. L. Hamline, D. D. Edited by D. W. Clark, D.D. Cincinnati, Ohio: Printed at the Methodist Book Concern for the author, 1859.

Miller, Adam. Origin and Progress of the German Mission in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Methodist Book Concern, 1843.

Miller, Randall M., editor. Germans in America: Retrospect and Prospect: Tricentennial Lectures Delivered at the German Society of Pennsylvania in 1983. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: German Society of Pennsylvania, 1984.

Miller, Wilhelm H., editor. Wegweiser der Nördlichen Deutschen Konferenz der Bischöflichen Methodistenkirche. Faribault, Minnesota: Hanson Brothers, 1903.

Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.

Minert, Roger. "Surname Changes in Northwestern Germany." German Genealogical Digest, volume 16, number 1 (Spring 2000), pages 6-17.

Mingay, G. E. "The Size of Farms in the Eighteenth Century." Economic History Review, New Series, volume 14, number 3 (1962), pages 469-488.

Missouri, a Guide to the "Show Me" State. Compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Missouri. Sponsored by the Missouri State Highway Department. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941.

Modell, John. "Family and Fertility on the Indiana Frontier, 1820." American Quarterly, volume 23, number 5 (December 1971), pages 615-634.

Moeller, Robert G. "Peasants and Tariffs in the Kaiserreich: How Backward Were the Bauern?" Agricultural History, volume 55, issue 4 (October 1981), pages 370-384.

Moldenhauer, Roger. "Benton County Lutherans and the Battle Of Cole Camp June 19, 1861." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly, volume 61, number 4 (1988), pages 150-160.

Moltmann, Bodo Hans. Deutsche Siedlung in Süd-Brasilien: ein erfolgreiches Jahrhundert deutscher überseeischer Siedelungsarbeit. Gotha: Friedrich Andreas Perthes, 1918.

Moltmann, Günter. "American-German Return Migration in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Central European History, volume 13, number 4 (December 1980), pages 378-392.

Moltmann, Günter. Instruction für deutsche Auswanderer nach Texas, nebst der neuesten Karte dieses Staates, nach dessen Grenzbestimmungen durch Congress-Beschluss vom September 1850. Berlin: Reimer, 1983, ©1850.

  • Originally published: Wiesbaden: Selbstverlag des Vereins-Comite's, 1850-1851. This reprint includes, in addition to the Instruction (26 p.), the Comite-Bericht des Vereines zum Schutze Deutscher Einwanderer in Texas, introduction by G. Moltmann in English and German, 6 maps on 3 folded leaves and one folded panorama of New Braunfels, Texas. Includes bibliography.

Moltmann, Günter. "Migrations from Germany to North America: New Perspectives." Reviews in American History, The View from Abroad: The Bellagio Conference on American History volume 14, number 4, (December 1986), pages 580-596.

Moré, Jean Charles. Die Colonisation in der Provinz São Pedro de Rio Grande do Sul in Brasilien. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt von H. Wertheim. Hamburg: Gedruckt in der Langhoff'schen Buchdruckerei, 1863.

  • Note: Translated from the French edition published the same year: De la Colonisation, dans la Province de St. Pierre de Rio-Grande do Sul, Brésil.

Montague, E. J. A Directory, Business Mirror, and Historical Sketches of Randolph County: Containing the Name, Residence, and Occupation of Every Citizen of the County; with a Condensed Sketch of Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, Commencing with their Indian History: a Sketch of Chester, Sparta, Red Bud, Liberty, Steelesville, Eden, Evansville, Coulterville, Lafayette, Preston, Florence, Shiloh Hill, Randolph and Camptown. Also, a Condensed Sketch of Randolph County, From the Time of its Organization: with Brief Notes of the Pioneer Settlers. Alton, Illinois: Courier Steam Book and Job Printing House, 1859.

Morgans, James Patrick. The Underground Railroad On The Western Frontier: Escapes from Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa and the Territories of Kansas, Nebraska and the Indian Nations, 1840-1865. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2010.

Morton, J. Sterling. Illustrated History of Nebraska: a History of Nebraska from the Earliest Explorations of the Trans-Mississippi Region, with Steel Engravings, Photogravures, Copper Plates, Maps, and Tables. 3rd edition. Edited by Albert Watkins and George L. Miller. Lincoln, Nebraska: Western Publishing and Engraving Company, 1911.

Morton, J. Sterling, and Albert Watkins. History of Nebraska From the Earliest Explorations of the Trans-Mississippi Region. A revised edition. Edited and revised by Augustus Orloff Thomas, James Alexander Beattie, and Arthur Cooper Wakeley. Lincoln, Nebraska: Western Publishing and Engraving Company, 1918.

Mulhall, Michael George. Rio Grande do Sul and its German Colonies. London, England: Longmans, Green, & Company, 1873.

Müller, Friedrich. Geschichte der Alten Grafen von Tecklenburg in Westfalen. Osnabrück: Rackhorst, 1842.

Müller, Friedrich. "Westfälische Auswanderer im 19. Jahrhundert: Auswanderung aus dem Regeirungsbezirk Münster," Beiträge zur Westfälische Familienforschung volume 22-24 (1964-1966), pages 7-484.

Müller, H., G. Bobilin, J. J. Messmer, J. Lange and J. Suter. Geschichte der Ost-Deutschen Konferenz der Bischöflichen Methodistenkirche. [place of publication not identified]: [publisher not identified], 1916.

Müller, Hans Ulrich. Tecklenburg: Stadt uun Burg. Münster: Landschaftsverb. Westfalen-Lippe, Landesbildstelle Westfalen, 1985.

Müller, Wilhelm. Aus der Geschichte der Grafschaft Tecklenburg. Tecklenburg: Kreisausschuss, 1920.

Nadel, Stanley. Little Germany: Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in New York City, 1845-80. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Nagel, Paul C. The German Migration to Missouri: My Family's Story. Kansas City, Missouri: Kansas City Star Books, for the Jackson County Historical Society, 2002.

Napton, William Barclay. Past and Present of Saline County, Missouri. Indianapolis, Indiana: B. F. Bowen & Company, 1910.

Naumann, Jakob. Selections from My Journey to America, 1836-1843. Translated and illustrated by Anna Kemper Hesse. Revised edition. Hermann, Missouri: Brush and Palette Club, 2000.

  • Excerpts are from Jakob Naumann's Reise nach den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika, ... Mittheilungen fur Auswanderungslustige.... Edited by Friedrich Bülau. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich, 1850.

New Knoxville Historical Society. Sesquicentennial Committee. Our Times: New Knoxville Sesquicentennial, 1836-1986. New Knoxville, Ohio: New Knoxville Historical Society, 1986.

Newman, Allen R. "The Influence of Family and Friends on German Internal Migration, 1880-85." Journal of Social History, volume 13, number 2 (Winter 1979), pages 277-288.

Nolt, Steven M. "The Quest for American Kinship: Liberty, Ethnicity, and Ecumenism among Pennsylvania German Lutherans, 1817-1842." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 19, number 2 (Winter 2000), pages 64-91.

Nordhoff, J. B. "Haus, Hof, Mark und Gemeinde Nordwestfalens in historischen Ueberblicke." Forschungen zur deutschen Landes- und Volkskunde, volume 4 (1890), pages 1-35.

Novak, Shannon A. House of Mourning: A Biocultural History of the Mountain Meadow Massacre. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2008.

  • The first part of this book has good general discussion of 19th century U.S. history: internal migration; settlement patterns; etc. It focuses mainly on upper southern states and settlement in Arkansas, but has leads for Fiegenbaum family history. Also, consult the bibliography.

Nugent, Walter T. K. Crossings: the Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

O'Connor, Richard. The German-Americans; an Informal History. Boston: Little, Brown, 1968.

Ogilvie, Sheilagh C., and Markus Cerman, editors. European Proto-industrialization. Cambridge, England; New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Ormesher, Susan, compiler. Missouri Marriages Before 1840. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1982.

Ostendorf, Johannes. "A History of Emigration from old Amt Damme (Oldenburg), in Particular to North America, in the Years 1830-1880." Oldenburger Jahrbuch des Landesvereins für Geschichte und Heimatkunde, volume 46/47 (1942-1943), pages 164-297.

Available online at <http://www.honkomp.de/damme-auswanderung/>.

Ostergren, Robert C. "Land and Family in Rural Immigrant Communities." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, volume 71, number 3 (September 1981), pages 400-411.

Ottmann, Hugo. Das Bauertum im Kreise Tecklenburg. Münsterer Wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Heft 21. Münster: Wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Verlag, 1938.

Our 150 years, 1812-1962: In Commemoration of the Madison County Sesquicentennial. Edited by James S. Flagg and the Madison County Sesquicentennial Committee. Edwardsville, Illinois: East 10 Publishing Company, Inc., 1962.

  • Note: "Much of the information has been gathered from Brink's History of Madison County, the Centennial History of Madison County by W. T. Norton of Alton, old issues of the Edwardsville Intelligencer, the Alton Telegraph, and the Wood River Journal." -- page 64.

Overdyke, W. Darrell. "A Southern Family on the Missouri Frontier: Letters from Independence, 1843-1855." Journal of Southern History, volume 17, number 2 (May 1951), pages 216-237.

Owsley, Frank L. "The Pattern of Migration and Settlement on the Southern Frontier." Journal of Southern History, volume 11, number 2 (May 1945), pages 147-176.

Page, Thomas Walker. "Distribution of Immigrants in the United States before 1870." Journal of Political Economy volume 20, number 7 (July 1912), pages 676-694.

Page, Thomas W. "Some Economic Aspects of Immigration Before 1870: I." The Journal of Political Economy, volume 20, number 10 (December, 1912), pages 1,011-1,028.

Page, Thomas W. "The Transportation of Immigrants and Reception Arrangements in the Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Political Economy, volume 19, number 9. (November 1911), pages 732-749.

Pagenstert, Clemens. Die Bauernhöfe im Amte Vechta. Vechta: Druck und Kommissionsverlag von Heinrich Koch, 1908.

  • There is a reprint of "2. Aufl., unveränd. photomechan. Abdr. [d. Ausg.] Vechta, Koch, 1908" by Dinklage: Heimatverein Herrlichkeit Dinklage e.V., 1976.

Paine, Clarence S. "The Diaries of a Nebraska Farmer, 1876-1877." Agricultural History, volume 22, number 1 (January 1948), pages 1-31.

Palmer, John McAuley, editor. The Bench and the Bar of Illinois: Historical and Reminiscent. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1899.

Patrick, Michael D., and Evellyn Goodrich Trickel. Orphan Trains to Missouri. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Pelzer, Louis. "Pioneer Stage-Coach Travel." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, volume 23, number 1 (June 1936), pages 3-26.

Penny, H. Glenn. "The Politics of Anthropology in the Age of Empire: German Colonists, Brazilian Indians, and the Case of Alberto Vojtech Fric." Comparative Studies in Society and History, volume 45, number 2 (April 2003), pages 249-280.

Perkins, J. A. "Dualism in German Agrarian Historiography." Comparative Studies in Society and History, volume 28, number 2 (April 1986), pages 287-306.

Perrin, William Henry. History of Bond and Montgomery Counties, Illinois. Chicago, Illinois: O. L. Baskin and Company, 1882.

Pessler, Willi. Das Altsächsische Bauernhaus in Seiner Geographischen Verbreitung. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1906.

Philippi, Friedrich. Geschichte Westfalens. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, 1926.

Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki. Contented Among Strangers: Rural German-Speaking Women and Their Families in the Nineteenth-Century Midwest. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.

Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki. "The Frontier Within and Without: Gender and the Memoirs of Rural German-Speaking Immigrants." In Scott E. Casper and Lucinda M. Long, editors, Moving Stories: Migration and the American West, 1850-2000 (Reno, Nevada: Nevada Humanities Committee, 2001), pages 22-50.

Pinson, Koppel S. Modern Germany: its History and Civilization. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

Pitkin, Donald S. "Partible Inheritance and the Open Fields." Agricultural History, volume 35, number 2 (April, 1961), pages 65-69.

Pitsch, Franz Joseph. Die Wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen Bremens zu den Verieinigten Staaten von Amerika bis zur Mitte des 19te. Jahrhunderts. Bremen: Veröffentlichungen aus dem Staatsarchiv der Freien Hansestadt Bremen, 1974.

Pittelkow, Johannes. Der Teutoburger Wald, Geographisch Betrachtet. Schriften der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zum Studium Niedersachsens, N. F. 8. Oldenburg: G. Stalling, 1941.

Plat Book of Lafayette County, Missouri; Drawn from Actual Surveys & County Records. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: North West Publishing Company, 1897.

Plat Book of Lafayette County, Missouri. Rockford, Illinois: W. W. Hixson & Company, 1930.

Plat Book of St. Charles County, Missouri. Rockford, Illinois: W. W. Hixson & Company, 1930.

Plat Book of Warren County, Missouri. Rockford, Illinois: W. W. Hixson & Company, 1930.

Portrait and Biographical Album of Coles County, Ill., Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County,.... Reprint edition by the Coles County, Illinois Genealogical Society. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1887; [1978?].

  • Note: This reprint edition begins with page 188. It includes an Every Name Index compiled by the genealogical society.

Portrait and Biographical Album of Henry County, Iowa: Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of all the Governors of Iowa, and of the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Acme Publishing Company, 1888.

Portrait and Biographical Album of Louisa County, Iowa, Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of All the Governors of the State, and of the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Acme Publishing Company, 1889.

Portrait and Biographical Album of Polk County, Iowa: Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of all the Presidents of the United States and Governors of the State. Chicago, Illinois: Lake City Publishing Company, 1890.

Portrait and Biographical Album of Wapello County, Iowa: Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of all the Governors of Iowa, and of the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1887.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Auglaize, Logan and Shelby Counties, Ohio, Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1892.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Buchanan and Clinton Counties, Missouri: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens, Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1893.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Lafayette and Saline Counties, Missouri: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens, Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1893.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Madison County, Illinois: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Biographical Publishing Company, 1894.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Randolph, Jackson, Perry and Monroe Counties, Illinois: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties: Together With Biographies and Portraits of All the Presidents of the United States, and the Governors of the State of Illinois. Chicago, Illinois: Biographical Publishing Company, 1894.

Portrait and Biographical Record of St. Charles, Lincoln, and Warren Counties, Missouri: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties, Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Chapman Brothers, 1895.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Tazewell and Mason Counties, Illinois; Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties, Together with Biographies and Portraits of the Governors of the State and the Presidents of the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Biographical Publishing Company, 1894.

Power, John Carroll. History of the Early Settlers of Sangamon County, Illinois. Centennial Record. Written with the assistance of Mrs. S. A. Power. Springfield, Illinois: Edwin A. Wilson & Company, 1876.

Prado Júnior, Caio. The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil. Translated by Suzette Macedo. Berkely: University of California Press, 1969.

Price, Carl Fowler, editor. Who's Who in American Methodism. New York: E. B. Treat and Company, 1916.

Primm, James N. "The G. A. R. in Missouri, 1866-1870." Journal of Southern History, volume 20, number 3 (August 1954), pages 356-375.

Pruß, Wilhelm. Rund um das Heilige Meer: Aus Sage und Geschichte des Kreises Tecklenburg. Münster: Aschendorff, 1934.

Rafferty, Milton D. Historical Atlas of Missouri. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.

Ranck, Chr. Kulturgeschichte des deutschen Bauernhauses. Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, no. 121. Leipzig: Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1907.

Randolph County Genealogical Society (Randolph County, Illinois). The Church Book of Evangelical Lutheran St. Mark's Congregation in Steeleville, Randolph County, Illinois, 1875-1915. [Chester], Illinois: Randolph County Genealogical Society, [no date].

Randolph County Genealogical Society (Randolph County, Illinois). In the Name of Jesus; Church Book; St. Peter's Lutheran; Randolph (now Bremen) Randolph County, Illinois; Records - Translated from German. Chester, Illinois: Randolph County Genealogical Society, [no date].

Rauschenbusch, August. Einige Anweisungen für Auswanderer nach den westlichen Staaten von Nordamerika und Reisebilder. Dritte Auflage. Elderfeld: Julius Bädeker, 1848.

Ravenstein, Ludwig. Atlas des Deutschen Reichs. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut, 1883.

Reckers, Stephanie, and Johanna Schulz. Die Bevölkerung in den Gemeinden Westfalens von 1818 bis 1950. Dortmund: 1952.

Reddaway, William Fiddian. Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904.

Reddy, William M. "Family and Factory: French Linen Weavers in the Belle Epoque." Journal of Social History, volume 8, number 2 (Winter 1975), pages 102-112.

Reichmann, Eberhard, La Vern J. Rippley, and Jörg Nagler, editors. Emigration and Settlement Patterns of German Communities in North America. Indianapolis, Indiana: Max Kade German-American Center, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, 1995.

Reinhofer, Hugo. Geschichte des Deutschen Bauernstandes. Graz: L. Stocker, 1925.

Rese, Beate. Texas, Ziel deutscher Auswanderung im 19. Jahrhundert. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1996.

Rettkowski, Hans, editor. Alte Bauernhäuser zwischen Weser und Ems. Text von Helmut Ottenjann; fotos von Helmut Tecklenburg. Leer, BRD: Bremer Landesbank/Staatlichen Kreditanstalt Oldenburg-Bremen, 1979.

Rice, James M. Peoria, City and County, Illinois: a Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress, and Achievement. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1912.

Richmond, Irving B., editor. History of Muscatine County Iowa from the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1911.

Roche, Jean. La Colonisation Allemande et le Rio Grande do Sul. Paris: Institut des Hautes Études de L'Amérique Latine, 1959.

Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? Problems and Potentials of Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History." William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, volume 44, number 4 (October 1987), pages 750-774.

Rohlmann, Friedrich. Wege zum Wesen: Pfade zu Volk und Heimat: Wanderungen durch das Tecklenburger Land. Osnabrück: J. G. Kisling, 1930.

Rosen, Anton. Ibbenbüren: Einst und Jetzt. Ibbenbüren: Ibbenbürener Vereinsdruckerei, 1950.

Rosen, Anton. Kirche und Kirchspiel im Tecklenburger Land; Im Anhang: Bernhard von Ibbenbüren, erster Fürstbischof von Paderborn.. [Ibbenbüren?]: 1954; Lengerich: Klein, 1954.

Rossi, Alice S., Jerome Kagan, and Tamara K. Hareven, editors. The Family. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978.

Rost, Ellen, Otmar Allendorf, Rolf-Dietrich Müller, Wolfram Czeschick, Bernd Broer & Heinz Marxkors. Auf nach Amerika!: Beiträge zur Amerika-Auswanderung des 19. Jahrhunderts aus dem Paderborner Land und zur Wiederbelebung der historischen Beziehungen im 20. Jahrhundert. Paderborn: Bonifatius, 1994- .

  • Band 1. Stadt Paderborn -- Band. 2. Auswanderer des 19. Jahrhunderts aus den Kreisen Büren und Paderborn.

Rowan, Steven, editor. Germans for a Free Missouri: Translations from the St. Louis Radical Press, 1857-1862. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1983.

Rowe, Michael. "Between Empire and Home Town: Napoleonic Rule on the Rhine, 1799-1814." The Historical Journal, volume 42, number 3 (September 1999), pages 643-674.

Rowe, Michael, editor. Collaboration and Resistance in Napoleonic Europe: State Formation in an Age of Upheaval, c. 1800-1815. Basingstoke, England; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Rowe, Michael. "France, Prussia, or Germany? The Napoleonic Wars and Shifting Allegiances in the Rhineland." Central European History, volume 39, number 4 (December 2006), pages 611-640.

Rowe, Michael. From Reich to State: The Rhineland in the Revolutionary Age, 1780-1830. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Rubin, Julius. "Canal or Railroad? Imitation and Innovation in the Response to the Erie Canal in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, volume 51, number 7 (1961), pages 1-106.

Rügge, Nicolas, with contributions by Wilhelm Brinkmeyer, and Walter Pfaff. Hardissen: History of a Village in Lippe. Translation by Carol A. Devore on behalf of Marc Brinkmeyer. 2nd edition. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Lage, 11. Lage, North Rhine-Westphalia, BRD: Lippe-Verlag, 2006.

  • Note: Per the verso of the title page, the 1st edition: Rügge, Nicolas. Hardissen. Eine lippische Ortsgeschichte. Lage, 1997.

Saatkamp, Friedrich. 1000 Jahre Ladbergen; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Tecklenburger Landes. Ladbergen (Westfalen): Heimatverein Ladbergen, 1950.

Saatkamp, Friedrich. Ladbergen: Aus Geschichte und Gegenwart des 1000-jährigen westfälischen Dorfes. 2. Auflage. Ladbergen (Westfalen): Heimatverein Ladbergen, 1975.

Saatkamp, Friedrich. Ladbergen: Out of the History and the Present of the 1000-year Westphalian Village. Edited and translated by Dean R. Hoge. New Knoxville, Ohio: New Knoxville Historical Society, 1985.

  • Note: This is a translated and revised version of: Saatkamp, Friedrich, Ladbergen: Aus Geschichte und Gegenwart des 1000-jährigen westfälischen Dorfes, 2. Auflage, (Ladbergen: Heimatverein Ladbergen, 1975).

Saatkamp, Friedrich. Ladbergen: Unsere Kirche - Unsere Pfarrer: Festschrift zum 100jährigen Bestehen der ev.-ref. Kirche in Landbergen. Ladbergen: Heimatverein Ladbergen, 1956.

Sabean, David. Propety, Production, and Family in Neckarhausen, 1700-1870. New York: 1990.

St. Charles County Genealogical Society. Ebenezer United Church of Christ, Augusta Missouri. St. Charles, Missouri: St. Charles County Genealogical Society, [1993?].

  • An index of baptisms, marriages and burials compiled from church records dating from the 1850s.

St. Charles County Genealogical Society. Femme Osage United Church of Christ, Femme Osage, Missouri: Baptisms, Marriages, Burials. St. Charles, Missouri: St. Charles County Genealogical Society, no date.

St. Charles County Genealogical Society. Friedens (Peace) United Church of Christ, New Melle, St. Charles County, Missouri. St. Charles, Missouri: St. Charles County Genealogical Society, 1994.

  • An index of baptisms, marriages and burials compiled from church records dating from the beginning of the 20th century.

St. Charles County Genealogical Society. Index to Records of St. John United Church of Christ, Cappeln, St. Charles County, Missouri. Book 1. St. Charles, Missouri: St. Charles County Genealogical Society, 1989.

St. Marcus United Church of Christ, St. Louis, Missouri: Burial Index, 1847-1879. Compiled by Robert Buecher. St. Louis, Missouri: Robert Buecher, 2003.

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church. St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Bay, MO (Gasconade): Church Records from 1856-1963. Transcribed, translated and compiled by John Block. Bay, Missouri: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, [2000?].

Salamon, Sonya. Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming, and Community in the Midwest. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Salem United Church of Christ. Historical Highlights of Salem United Church of Christ, 1870-1995. Higginsville, Missouri: Salem United Church of Christ, 1995.

Salem United Church of Christ. A History of the Salem Church, 1870-1970 in Higginsville, Missouri. Higginsville, Missouri: Salem United Church of Christ, 1970.

Salway, Benet. "What's in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. 700 B.C. to A.D. 700." The Journal of Roman Studies, volume 84 (1994), pages 124-145.

Santos, Sales Augusto dos. "Historical Roots of the 'Whitening' of Brazil." Latin American Perspectives, volume 29, number 1 (January 2002), pages 61-82.

Schake, Lowell M. La Charrette; a History of the Village Gateway to the American Frontier Visited by Lewis and Clark, Daniel Boone, Zebulon Pike. New York: iUniverse Star, 2005.

Schappelle, Benjamin Franklin. The German Element in Brazil: Colonies and Dialect. America Germanica, number 26. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Americana Germanica Press, 1917.

Schmitt, Hans A. "From Sovereign States to Prussian Provinces: Hanover and Hesse-Nassau, 1866-1871." The Journal of Modern History, volume 57, number 1 (March 1985), pages 24-56.

Schmitt, Hans A. "Germany without Prussia: A Closer Look at the Confederation of the Rhine." German Studies Review, volume 6, number 1 (February 1983), pages 9-39.

Schmitt, Hans A. "Prussia's Last Fling: The Annexation of Hanover, Hesse, Frankfurt, and Nassau, June 15 - October 8, 1866." Central European History, Volume 8, Number 4 (December, 1975), pp. 316-347.

Schneider, Carl E. "The Genius of the Reformed Church in the United States: A Genetic Appraisal of her Union with the Evangelical Synod of North America." The Journal of Religion, volume 15, number 1 (January 1935), pages 26-41.

Schneider, Carl E. The German Church on the American Frontier: A Study in the Rise of Religion Among the Germans of the West: Based on the History of the Evangelischer Kirchenverein des Westens, 1840-1866. St. Louis, Missouri: Eden Publishing House, 1939.

Schneider, Carl E. "The Origin of the German Evangelical Synod of North America." Church History, volume 4, number 4 (December 1935), pages 268-281.

Schneider, Dorothee. "Naturalization and United States Citizenship in Two Periods of Mass Migration: 1890-1930, 1965-2000." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 21, number 1 (Fall 2001), pages 50-82.

Schoppenhorst, Heinrich Adolph. The Writings of Honorable H. A. Schoppenhorst (1840-1930). Compiled by Cathie Schoppenhorst. Marthasville, Missouri: C. Schoppenhorst, 2000.

Schoppenhorst, Martin. Ladbergen in Alten Ansichten. Zaltbommel, The Netherlands: Europäische Bibliothek, 1983.

Schory, Albert. Geschichte der Deutschen Evangelischen Synode von Nord-Amerika. St. Charles, Missouri: Verlag der Deutschen Evangelischen Synode von Nord-Amerika, 1889.

Schücking, Lothar Engelbert. Die Fürstentümer Münster und Osnabrück unter französischer Herrschaft: Kulturgeschichtliche Bilder nach Magistratsakten, Zeitungen und Familienpapieren.. Münster: E. Obertüschens Buchhandlung A. Schultze, 1904.

Schwantes, Carlos Arnoldo. Long Day's Journey; the Steamboat & Stagecoach Era in the Northern West. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Seccombe, Wally. A Millennium of Family Change: Feudalism to Capitalism in Northwestern Europe. London: Verson, 1992.

Senger und Etterlin, Stefan von. Neu-Deutschland in Nordamerika: Massenauswanderung, nationale Gruppenansiedlungen und liberale Kolonialbewegung, 1815-1860. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1991.

Shannon, Fred A. The Farmer's Last Frontier: Agriculture, 1860-1897. Volume 5 of Economic History of the United States edited by Henry David, et al, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1945). New York: Harper & Row, 1968, ©1945.

? ?

Shelley, Jane, and Elsie M. Wasser. Madison County Illinois Marriage Records Index. 4 volumes. Edwardsville, Illinois: J. Shelley and E. M. Wasser, 1984-1986.

  • Volume 1: 1813-1850 (1984). Volume 2: 1851-1865 (1985). Volume 3: 1866-1874 (1986). Volume 4: 1875-1882 (1986)

Shelley, Jane, and Elsie M. Wasser. Naturalization and Intentions of Madison County, Illinois: An Index, 1816-1900. Edwardsville, Illinois: J. Shelley and E. M. Wasser, 1983.

Shryock, Richard H. "British Versus German Traditions in Colonial Agriculture." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, volume 26, number 1 (June 1939), pages 39-54.

Simkins, Joshua Dean. Early History of Auglaize County. St. Mary's Ohio: the author, 1901.

Simpson, Matthew, editor. Cyclopedia of Methodism: Embracing Sketches of Its Rise, Progress, And Present Condition, with Biographical Notices and Numerous Illustrations. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Everts & Stewart, 1878.

Smith, Clifford Neal. Emigrants from the former Amt Damme, Oldenburg, (now Niedersachsen), Germany, mainly to the United States, 1830-1849. Baltimore, Maryland: Reprinted for Clearfield Company by Genealogical Publishing Company, 2004.

  • Note: The original publication was: Smith, Clifford Neal. Emigrants from the former Amt Damme, Oldenburg, (now Niedersachsen), Germany, mainly to the United States, 1830-1849. German-American Genealogical Research Monograph 12. McNeal, Arizona: Westland Publications, 1981.
  • "The booklet includes the German townships of Damme, Holdorf, and Neuenkirchen, which are today part of Niedersachen. Arranged by farming community, it identifies nearly 3,000 persons who emigrated to North America between 1830 and 1849. For the most part, Smith has transcribed each individual's name (sometimes only a surname), the number of persons traveling with that passenger, date of departure, and, sometimes, names of family members, occupation, and destination. A surname index at the back of the work makes finding persons relatively simple. (Much of the information in this volume was originally published in an article prepared from official files.)" -- Ancestry.com (Library Edition). Immigration & Naturalization Records.

Smith, Clifford Neal, & Anna Piszczan-Czaja Smith. American Genealogical Resources in German Archives (AGRIGA): a Handbook. München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977.

Smith, Clifford Neal, & Anna Piszczan-Czaja Smith. Encyclopedia of German-American Genealogical Research. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1976.

Smith, Kenneth L. German Church Books: Beyond the Basics. Revised edition. Rockport, Maine: Picton Press, 1999.

Smith, T. Lynn. Brazil: People and Institutions. 4th edition. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.

Smith, T. Lynn. "Land Tenure in Brazil." The Journal of Land & Public Utility Economics, volume 20, number 3 (August 1944), pages 194-201.

Smith, T. Lynn. "Studies of Colonization and Settlement." Latin American Research Review, volume 4, number 1 (Spring 1969), pages 93-123.

Social Register of Saint Joseph, Missouri. Compiled by Mrs. Laurence O. Weakley. [St. Joseph, Missouri]: Combe Printing Company, 1903.

Souvenir of the Ninetieth Anniversary of the Organization of German Methodism. Cincinnati, Ohio: Published by authorization of the Central German Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church [The Methodist Book Concern?], 1928.

Sperber, Jonathan. The European Revolutions, 1848-1851. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Sperber, Jonathan. Rhineland Radicals: The Democratic Movement and the Revolution of 1848-1849. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Springer, Arthur. History of Louisa County, Iowa, From its Earliest Settlement to 1912. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1911-1912.

Springer, Jessie Evelyn. Charles Springer of Cranehook-on-the-Delaware: His Descendants and Allied Families. Edwardsville, Illinois: Jessie Evelyn Springer, 1959.

Stanger, Robert C. "The Elmhurst Years." Elmhurst College Magazine, volume 14, number 3 (1971), pages 1-30.

Stapenhorst, A. H. Brochterbeck und Siene Evangelische Gemeinde. 1912.

Stedman, Thomas Lathropage Stedman's Shorter Medical Dictionary for the Use of Doctors, Pre-medical Students, Graduate and Student Nurses, Dentists and Dental Students, and of the General Public, with Revised Time Table of Infectious Diseases. Revised and enlarged. Chicago, Illinois: Wilcox & Follett Company, 1942.

Stern, Gail F., editor. Freedom's Doors: Immigrant Ports of Entry to the United States. Philadelphia: Balch Institute, 1986.

Stevens, Walter Barlow. Centennial History of Missouri: (the Center State); One Hundred Years in the Union, 1820-1921. 4 volumes. St. Louis, Missouri: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1921.

Stewart, Clark Emerson. On Randolph Hills: Personal Memories - Anecdotes - Reminiscences - and Characters. 2nd edition. Heyworth, Illinois: Heyworth Star, 1943.

Stolarik, M. Mark, editor. Forgotten Doors; the Other Ports of Entry to the United States. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Balch Institute Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1988.

Stork, Heinz, editor. Ladbergen: "Land un Lüe.": Beiträge zur Geschichte des tausendjährigen Dorfes Ladbergen. Norwalde: Schmitz Druck & Verlag, 1992.

Stratton, Joanna L. Pioneer Women: Voices from the Kansas Frontier. New York: Touchstone, 1981.

Stothers, Thomas. Armagh Families. [Loughgall, Northern Ireland]: Thomas Stothers, 2003.

Suess, Jared H. Central European Genealogical Terminology. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1978.

Sutton, Robert. History of Auglaize County, Ohio, with the Indian History of Wapakoneta, and the First Settlement of the County. Wapakoneta, Ohio: the author, 1880.

Sweet, William Warren. Circuit-rider Days Along the Ohio; Being the Journals of the Ohio Conference from its Organization in 1812 to 1826. New York, Cincinnati: The Methodist Book Concern, 1923.

Swierenga, Robert P. "List upon List: The Ship Passenger Records and Immigration Research." Journal of American Ethnic History, volume 10, number 3 (Spring 1991), pages 42-53.

Swierenga, Robert P. "The Settlement of the Old Northwest: Ethnic Pluralism in a Featureless Plain." Journal of the Early Republic, volume 9, number 1 (Spring 1889), pages 73-105.

Taber, Clarence Wilbur. Taber's Cylopedic Medical Dictionary Including a Digest of Medical Subjects: Medicine, Surgery, Nursing, Dietetics, Physical Therapy. 5th edition. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis Company, 1951.

Taber, Clarence Wilbur. Taber's Cylopedic Medical Dictionary. 13th edition. Edited by Clayton L. Thomas. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis Company, 1977.

Taylor, Robert M., Jr. "Summoning the Wandering Tribes: Genealogy and Family Reunions in American History." Journal of Social History, volume 16, number 2 (Winter 1982), pages 21-37.

Tecklenburg, August. Bilder aus der Geschichte unserer Heimatlande: ein Ergänzungsheft für Geschichtsunterricht in den Schulen der Provinz Hannover. Zweite, umgearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Hannover-List: Verlag von Carl Meyer, 1908.

Tecklenburg, Helmut. Das Emsland. Kultur and Landschaft. Essen: Verlag Alte Zeilen, 1982.

Thimme, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl. Die Okkupation des Kurfürstentums Hannover durch die Preussen im Jahre 1806. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Philosophischen Doktorwürde an der Georg-Augusts-Universität zu Göttingen. Hannover: Hofbuchdruckerei der Gebrüder Jänecke, 1893.

Thimme, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl. Die inneren Zustände des Kurfürstentums Hannover unter der Französisch-Westfälischen Herrschaft, 1806-1813. 2 volumes. Hannover und Leipzig: Hahn, 1893-1895.

Thoburn, Joseph B. A Standard History of Oklahoma: An Authentic Narrative of its Developments from the Date of the First European Exploration Down to the Present Time, including Accounts of the Indian Tribes, both Civilized and Wild, of the Cattle Range, of the Land Openings and the Achievements of the Most Recent Period. Chicago and New York: The American Historical Society, 1916.

Thode, Ernest. German-English Genealogical Dictionary. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992.

Tilly, Richard. "Popular Disorders in Nineteenth-Century Germany: A Preliminary Survey." Journal of Social History, volume 4, number 1 (Autumn 1970), pages 1-40.

Tobler, Hans Werner, and Peter Waldmann. "German Colonies in South America: A New Germany in the Cono Sur?" Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, volume 22, number 2 (May 1980), pages 227-245.

Totten, Christine M. Roots in the Rhineland: America's German Heritage in Three Hundred Years of Immigration, 1683-1983. New York: German Information Center, 1983.

Totten, John Reynolds. Thacher-Thatcher Genealogy. New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 1910.

Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year....

  • 1912.   Biography of Joseph Gillespie; pages 93-114 (photo on page 91).

Tucker, Frank C. The Methodist Church in Missouri, 1798-1939: a Brief History. S.l.: Produced for the Joint Committee of the Historical Societies of the Missouri East and the Missouri West Annual Conferences, 1966.

Uekötter, Hans. Die Bevölkerungsbewegung in Westfalen und Lippe 1818-1933. Arbeiten der Geographischen Kommission im Provinzialinstitut für Westfälische Landes- und Volkskunde, 5. Münster in Westfalen: Coppenrath, 1941.

United States of Brazil: A Geographical Sketch, With Special Reference to Economic Conditions and Prospects of Future Development. Compiled by the Bureau of the American Republics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1901.

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign campus). The Alumni Record of the University of Illinois; Chicago Departments: Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry, School of Pharmacy. Edited by Carl Stephens. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1921.

University of Kansas. Alumni Catalogue.

  • Alumni Catalogue, February 1905. Bulletin of the University of Kansas; vol. 5, no. 5. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, [1905?].
  • Alumni Catalogue, March 1908. Bulletin of the University of Kansas; vol. 9, no. 2. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, [1908?].

Untiet, Willi. "Mit Guth und Blut eigen": Bäuerliches Leben in Ladbergen vor 1900. Ladbergen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Gemeinde Ladbergen, 1993.

van Ravenswaay, Charles. The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: A Survey of a Vanishing Culture. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1977.

Vellinho, Moyses. Brazil South: Its Conquest and Settlement. Translated from the Portuguese by Linton Lomas Barrett & Marie McDavid Barrett. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968.

Vestal, Stanley. The Missouri. Lincoln, Nebraska: Bison Books/University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

  • This is a reprint of the 1945 edition by Farrar & Rinehart, of New York.

Vidalenc, Jean, et al. "Les Notables des Départements Hanséatiques." Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, Tome 17e, No. 3, La France a l'époque Napoléonienne (July- September 1970), pages 777-794.

Vineyard, John, Mrs., editor. The Marriage Records of Jackson County, Missouri. Independence, Missouri: Mrs. John Vineyard, 1967.

Voß, Anton. Westfälisches Bauerntum in Wandel der Zeiten: eine Einführung in die Geschichte des Westfälischen Bauernstandes. Gelsenkirchen: Schmidt, 1937.

Waal, Carla, and Barbara Oliver Korner, editors. Hardship and Hope: Missouri Women Writing about Their Lives, 1820-1920. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Wagner, Friedrich. Landwirtschaftliche Bauten. Dritte wesentlich erweiterte Auflage. Berlin: Verlag Deutsche Bauzeitung, 1907.

Waibel, Leo. "European Colonization in Southern Brazil." Geographical Review, volume 40, number 4 (October 1950), pages 529-547.

Walker, Juliet E. K. Free Frank: a Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1983.

  • "The story of Free Frank is not only a testament to human courage and resourcefulness but affords new insight into the American frontier. Born a slave in the South Carolina piedmont in 1777, Frank died a free man in 1854 in a town he had founded in western Illinois. His accomplishments, creditable for any frontiersman, were for a black man extraordinary. Goods and services commanded a premium in the life of the frontier. Free Frank's career shows what an exceptional black man, though working against great odds, could accomplish through industry, acumen, and aggressiveness. His story suggests a great deal about business activity and legal practices, as well as racial conditions, on the frontier. Juliet Walker has performed a task of historical detection in recreating the life of Free Frank from family traditions, limited personal papers, public documents, and secondary sources. In doing so, she has added a significant chapter to the history of Afro-Americans." -- Back cover.

Walker, Mack. German Home Towns: Community, State, and General Estate, 1648-1871. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971.

Walker, Mack. Germany and the Emigration: 1816-1886. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Walker, Mack. "Napoleonic Germany and the Hometown Communities." Central European History, volume 2, number 2 (June 1969), pages 99-113.

Walters, Tony. "Towards a Theory of Ethnic Identity and Migration: the Formation of Ethnic Enclaves by Migrant Germans in Russia and North America." International Migration Review, 29:2 (Summer 1995), pages 515-544.

Warner, George E., C. M. Foote, Edward D. Neill, and J. Fletcher Williams. History of Dakota County and the City of Hastings, Including the Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota, by Rev. Edward D. Neill, and Outlines of the History of Minnesota, by J. Fletcher Williams. Minneapolis, Minnesota: North Star Publishing Company, 1881.

Wasser, Elsie M. 1845 Census of Madison County, Illinois. Edwardsville, Illinois: Elsie M. Wasser, 1985.

Waterman, Harrison L. History of Wapello County, Iowa. 2 volumes. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1914.

Waterman, John T. A History of the German Language; With Special Reference to the Cultural and Social Forces that Shaped the Standard Literary Language. Revised edition. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., 1976.

Watson, Ken. Paddle Steamers; an Illustrated History of Steamboats on the Mississippi and its Tributaries. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1985.

Weaver, Glenn. "The German Reformed Church and the Home Missionary Movement before 1863: A Study in Cultural and Religious Isolation." Church History, volume 22, number 4 (December 1953), page 298-313.

Weaver, William Woys. "The Pennsylvania German House: European Antecedents and New World Forms." Winterthur Portfolio, volume 21, number 4 (Winter, 1986), pages 243-264.

Wegge, Simone A. "Chain Migration and Information Networks: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Hesse-Cassel." Journal of Economic History, volume 58, number 4 (December 1998), pages 957-986.

Wehrmann, Volker, editor. Die Lippische Landeskirche, 1684-1984: Ihre Geschichte in Darstellungen, Bildern und Dokumenten. Detmold: Lippische Landeskirche with the Lippisches Heimatbund, 1984.

Weiffenbach, Eugene, editor. Fortieth Anniversary and Patriotic Number: Official Minutes of the St. Louis German Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, held in Immanuel Church, Edwardsville, Ill., September 11-16, 1918 . Cincinnati, Ohio: The Methodist Book Concern, 1918.

Wellauer, Maralyn A. German Immigration to America in the Nineteenth Century: a Genealogist's Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Roots International, 1985.

Wells, Peter S. The Battle that Stopped Rome; Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of the Legions in the Teutoburg Forest. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003.

Wells, O. V. "The Depression of 1873-79." Agricultural History, volume 11, number 3 (July 1937), pages 237-251.

Wetmore, Alphonso. Gazetteer of the State of Missouri: With a Map of the State, from the Office of the Surveyor-General, including the Latest Additions and Surveys: to Which is Added an Appendix, Containing Frontier Sketches, and Illustrations of Indian Character. St. Louis, Missouri: C. Keemle, 1837.

Whedbee, T. Courtney J. The Port of Baltimore in the Making, 1828-1878. Baltimore: Bowie Smith & Sons, 1953.

Willems, Emílio. "Acculturation and the Horse Complex among German-Brazilians." American Anthropologist, New Series, volume 46, number 2, Part 1 (April - June 1944), pages 153-161.

Williams, Deward Charles. The Bollman Kriege-Spitze Families. Mt. Carmel, Illinois: [no date].

  • Note: Typescript by a former pastor (1946-1949) of the Immanuel Methodist Church at Edwardsville, Illinois. On the basis of content on pages 15 and 63, this publication could not have been created prior to 1966.
  • Fiegenbaums are mentioned; see the index, page 129.

Williams, Walter, editor. A History of Northwest Missouri. 3 volumes. Chicago; New York: Lewis Publishing Company, 1915.

Williamson, C. W. History of Western Ohio and Auglaize County with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers and Prominent Public Men. Columbus, Ohio: Press of W. M. Linn & Sons, 1905.

Wills, Charles Wright. Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, Including a Day by Day Record of Sherman's March to the Sea; Letters and Diary of the Late Charles W. Wills, Private and Sergeant 8th Illinois Infantry; Lieutenant and Battalion Adjutant 7th Illinois Cavalry; Captain, Major and Lieutenant Colonel 103rd Illinois Infantry. Compiled and Published by his Sister [Mary E. Kellogg]. Washington, D.C.: Globe Printing Company, 1906.

Winter, Nevin Otto. A History of Northwest Ohio: A Narrative Account of Its Historical Progress and Development from the First European Exploration of the Maumee and Sandusky Valleys and the Adjacent Shores of Lake Erie, Down to the Present Time. 3 volumes. Chicago, Illinois & New York, New York: Lewis Publishing Company, 1917.

Woestemeyer, John A., compiler. Woestemeyer Family Genealogy. St. Paul, Minnesota: L. F. Knowles, 1940.

Woestemeyer, John A., et al, compilers. Woestemeyer Family Association: Genealogy, Book 2, 1940-1950. St. Paul, Minnesota: L. F. Knowles, 1950.

Wolf, Gustav. Das Norddeutsche Dorf; Bilder Ländlicher Bau- und Seidlungsweise im Gebiet Nördlich von Mosel und Lahn, Thüringer Wald und Sudeten. München: R. Piper & Company, 1923.

Woodard, W. S. Annals of Methodism in Missouri, Containing an Outline of the Ministerial Life of More Than One Thousand Preachers, and Sketches of More Than Three Hundred, Also Sketches of Charges, Churches and Laymen from the Beginning in 1806 to the Centennial Year, 1884, Containing Seventy-eight Years of History. Columbia, Missouri: E. W. Stephens, Publisher and Binder, 1893.

Woodlawn Cemetery, St. Louis St., Edwardsville, IL: an Inventory of the Five Original Sections Recorded by Members of the Madison County Genealogical Society, 1995-1998. Compiled and edited by Marie Thompson Eberle. Edwardsville, Illinois: Madison County Genealogical Society, 1999.

  • Note: Cemeteries and Tombstone Inscriptions of Madison County, Illinois; Volume 10.

Woodruff, Howard W., Mrs., editor. The Marriage Records of Franklin County, Missouri: books "A" & "B," 1819-1858. Kansas City, Missouri: Mrs. H. W. Woodruff, 1969.

Woodruff, Howard W., Mrs., editor. The Marriage Records of Warren County, Missouri: Books "A" and "B," 1833-1860. Kansas City, Missouri: Mrs. Howard W. Woodruff, 1969.

Woodruff, Howard W., Mrs., editor. Marriage Records, Osage County, Missouri: Book "A" 1841-1861. Kansas City, Missouri: Mrs. Howard W. Woodruff, 1970.

Woodruff, Howard W., Mrs., editor. Marriage Records, Perry County, Missouri; Book "A" 1825-1842. Independence, Missouri: Mrs. Howard W. Woodruff, 1971.

Woodruff, Howard W., Mrs., editor. Marriage Records, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri, Book "A", 1807-1827 & 1842-1866. Kansas City, Missouri: Mrs. Howard W. Woodruff, 1970.

Wrasmann, Adolf. Das Heuerlingswesen im Fürstentum Osnabrück. 2 volumes. Osnabrück: 1919-1921.

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Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Missouri. Missouri, a Guide to the "Show Me" State. Compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Missouri. American guide series. Sponsored by the Missouri State Highway Department. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941.

Wust, Klaus German. The Virginia Germans. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1969.

Wyman, Mark. Immigrants in the Valley: Irish, Germans, and Americans in the Upper Mississippi Country 1830-1860. Chicago, Illinois: Nelson-Hale, 1984.

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Young, Raymond A. Cooperation: a History of the Missouri Farmers Association. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1995.

Young, William. Young's History of Lafayette County, Missouri. 2 Volumes. Indianapolis, Indiana: B. F. Bowen & Company, 1910.

Zenglein, Dieter; Walter Nikolaus; Heinrich Becker; Ernest Thode. To the Banks of the Ohio: an Essay on Emigration of people from the Kohlbach ("Coal Creek") Valley to America Especially Washington County, Ohio in the 19th Century. Marietta, Ohio: E. Thode, 1988.

Zimmerman, Gary J., & Marion Wolfert. German Immigrants: Lists Of Passengers Bound From Bremen to New York, 1847-1854, With Places of Origin. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1985.